What is the target audience? The concept of the target audience, the main indicators
Today we are surrounded by advertising from all sides. Wherever we go, everywhere we will see some product description, information on how to purchase a particular product or service. All this is advertising materials with which we live in a familiar life.
The basis of the advertising campaign is to determine the target audience. What this means, we will try to describe in detail in this article. In the meantime, consider a model of how any advertising functions and how the marketing technology is built.
How is the advertising?
So, we all know how products and services that are involved in marketing are sold. Simply put, the sellers are doing everything so that as many buyers as possible know about the product, its advantages, want to buy it and tell about it to their friends.To achieve this goal, and there is advertising.
It works as a means of notification, conveying information of the manufacturer to the common person who makes the purchase. And it is clear that the target audience of the advertisement is here. It allows you to accurately determine who needs to show the material; who may be interested in the product, information about it and who wants to buy it at all. This is the main task of the person who compiles and defines the target audience, that is, identifying people who need to see ads and show sponsorship. This approach will allow to convey information about the product to those who can buy it. In this case, the advertising budget can not be spent on other members of the public. This is a savings that can be quite substantial, if not even save the budget of the company.
What is the target audience?
Thus, under these words lies the simple definition of a certain number of people, of a certain group that has something in common. It is through this unifying factor (the very “general”) that this segment of the audience is of interest to the advertiser and marketers.
And the word “target” means, first of all, the focus on a particular group of people from the point of view of sales. After all, they need to offer a product or service, they will be interested in making a purchase.
Determining who your target audience is is one of the initial tasks of the product promoter. The success of the campaign depends on whether the group of interested (target) buyers is determined correctly.
In the science of marketing allocate a lot of approaches to what the main features and characteristics should have an audience of customers. However, the simplest and most accessible point of view is to single out two signs with which the target audience is endowed. The question now is, firstly, about the interest of people entering the target audience in a product or service. This is important because it is this feature that guarantees the inclusion of certain social strata in the list of potential buyers. For example, it is the understanding that the target audience of a company selling CASCO insurance policies is car buyers or drivers.
The second feature should be called some kind of connecting element. In a situation with a hull insurance they may have a car and the need to insure it. This factor allows you to clearly combine a group of people belonging to the target audience.
Characteristics of persons
Anything can be a unifying factor. The presence of a car, a house in a certain area, a child and much more are the signs by which the marketer must make the correct description of how the target audience looks like. There are no restrictions in this search, the main thing is to find what will interest your buyer and force him to contact your company to purchase goods or services.
Such characteristics may include the presence / absence of something, the age of people (as a result, their behavior), occupation, core habits, preferences, material condition, hobbies, origin, mother tongue, and so on. The more accurately all these and other factors are taken into account, the more qualitatively the types of the target audience will be formed.
Target audience determination
To find out who is interested in your product,It is necessary to follow the simplest logical chain from the characteristics of the product to the problems and needs that it is able to solve and satisfy. A vivid example of this, if you sell drugs to fight obesity, your product will be of interest to full people who would like to lose those extra pounds. These can be found, for example, among women aged 20-40 who periodically visit the gym. Consequently, the target platform for such advertising you can find in the women's fitness room. However, it should also be remembered that the person who came to the hall, deliberately refused pills in favor of a healthy way of losing weight through exercise. Your task is to convince him that by combining your product and sport, he will be able to achieve better results.
Analysis of the target audience should be carried out even further to take into account as many points and factors as possible. This is part of the task of the marketer, which constitutes an approximate target audience.
Calculation and verification
For each advertising campaign it is important to make different types of target audience. This is done in order to reach as many people as possible, potentially interested in buying a product.The more criteria are applied for the “screening out” of such buyers, the better the resulting target audience will be. At the same time, the more people enter it, the better for marketing in the end, because it will be easier and cheaper to “get” such potentially interested people.
So, given that we are creating several models of the target audience at once, a natural step will be to further check each of them with the aim of identifying the most successful and easily accessible. This will help practical testing of the target audience.
This can be done in different ways. Some companies attract agencies that conduct social surveys and statistics samples. Others do local product testing in a restricted environment. There are many ways to do this, but all of them consist in finding out how much a working model of an audience can be considered.
How to apply the data?
After the target audience has been established, to work with which in the framework of a project is more profitable, you can proceed to the next stage - application in practice.This is a direct function of advertising agencies that connect these or other advertising methods in order to “reach out” to the right audience.
Let's give an example. If you have a store that is located on A street and offers products at low prices, people passing by will be your target audience. In order to interest them, you can hold any event dedicated to the opening of your store; or just to occupy advertising space on the same street, with an emphasis on the low prices and the benefits that the buyer will receive.
Example of a target audience: its age
In order not to be so unsubstantiated, we proceed from a general theory to concrete practical examples. Let us analyze the most popular parameters that determine and connect the target audience into a single whole. So let's start with age.
Analyzing how old people come to you most often is easy enough. Here we need to proceed from the specifics of the product. After all, it is obvious that sporting goods are of interest to young people, electronics is similar; but a phone with large buttons will be more useful to older people, like a hearing aid.
Any thing can be confidently attributed to one or another age group as a whole. True, some products are universal, so they need to be properly presented in order to lure as many interested people as possible.
Target audience example: occupation
Another common criterion to which one pays attention when drawing up a group of target audiences is a person’s activities. First, it is important because they determine the material support of the potential buyer. Secondly, an occupation can sometimes serve as a link between the interest and need of a person and your product. For example, entrepreneurs may be interested in accounting services or legal assistance; Drivers - a new program for buying a car or a store of inexpensive spare parts. It follows from the fact that it is useful to a person engaged in a particular job. That is why, when the target audience is compiled, the employment of a person plays a big role.
Target audience example: interests
Another indicator - interests. This is a very strong factor, because it allows you to bind to the customer’s characteristics any possible needs that the product can satisfy.Simply put, if you know that a person likes to climb the mountains, you can impose a whole range of sports equipment, as well as a subscription to the training room; and to someone who loves reading, you can offer to participate in the club program for the acquisition of certain books. Hobbies are our weakness, so when the target audience is being identified, marketers take into account the increased interest of a person in his hobbies and the ability to “impose” more on him.
Error in finding an audience
And, of course, working with the target audience, it is impossible to do without mistakes. In any definition model there are flaws, due to which a part of society is covered, where your product and product are not interesting at all. These are the mistakes that create the wrong target audience. Examples of how this is done are: to advertise a school near another school in the hope that parents will see it and transfer their child to another educational institution. Yes, such a result is not excluded, but it should be understood that in order to poach a client, something more is needed than just informing him, and even near the school where he already leads his child.
Errors are easiest to correct empirically. And to identify them, in fact, can only be practical. After all, every situation is unique. Even in the school example, advertising can work successfully if parents are dissatisfied with the quality of education in the institution where they are already taking their child.
It should also be remembered that any target audience, examples of which can be called in large quantities, is a “vinaigrette” from different people. If someone is interested in your product, then there will surely be those who will oppose it categorically. This should also be remembered when creating an advertising campaign. If you try to attract a buyer with more aggressive and intrusive methods, there will be even more such “dissatisfied” ones.
In general, to know how to search and identify the target audience, practical experience is needed. Take the usual mobile operators. These are companies with billions of dollars in turnover and years of experience, which, making up the target audience of communications, also often resort to experiments and actions to test certain ideas. Experts in them understand what kind of audience they need and how to influence it, but nevertheless, even with this knowledge, experiments are needed to prove the idea in practice.
Therefore, if you want to identify the target audience for your product, do it! But then check the result in practice. It may differ from what was originally intended. So, in fact, make the major advertising agencies involved in preparing for the campaign. They also do not know what to do, but they almost guess what results one or another advertising move will bring. And then it's up to the statistics, which will give the final answer.