The feudal war of the 15th century
Many historical events taking place inRussia in the past centuries, had a significant impact on its further development. One of them was a feudal war that broke out in the fourteenth century and lasted from 1433 to 1953. Its main reason was the violation of the then existing right of succession of the throne from brother to brother, and later more new - from father to son.
This historical period was characterized bythe formation of several possessions on the territory of the Moscow principality. They belonged to the sons of Dm. Donskoy. The largest specific units were under the rule of Yuri Dmitrievich. It was Zvenigorod and Galicia. Strife for the throne at this time reached a large scale, which is why they were called "feudal war."
The beginning of it was a controversial issue of inheritance,which was to go to Yuri after the death of his elder brother Basil I-th, but this did not happen. The throne passed by will to the 10-year-old son of Basil I. As the eldest in the family, Yuri strove to receive the throne of the throne, reigning according to the laws then valid. It is precisely because of this that the feudal war began, in which the interests of the uncle with nephew Basil II were agreed. Soon after the beginning of the struggle, Yuri Dmitrievich dies, and the war that he started continues with his sons: Dmitry Shemyaka and Vasily Kosy.
The war acquires the character of a struggle, in whichthere are supporters and opponents of centralization of the state. The feudal war of those years was cruel and completely uncompromising. In its course, any means were used. It was conspiracies, deceptions, and even fanaticism. Basil II was blinded by his enemies, and later he was nicknamed Basil the Dark. This war ended with his victory, because it was he who became the Grand Prince of Moscow and began to rule the country during the hard times of civil strife and fratricidal wars.
The feudal war in Russia was long, andthe result of a continuous twenty-year struggle was a great ruin and a significant weakening of the defense capability of the entire Russian land. The consequence of this, of course, was the still more devastating raids of the Horde khans. It was the time of the establishment of the sole princely rule and the establishment of a clear legacy to the throne. It was established that he had to move exclusively from father to son.
Concomitant reasons, because of whicha feudal war broke out in Rus at that time, there was an intensification of the contradictions that arose among the feudal lords and connected with the ways and forms of centralization of the state. This war was going on in a difficult time for the country: against the backdrop of the Tatars' raids and the expansion of the Lithuanian principality, economic and political consolidation, both great (Moscow, Ryazan, Tver), and smaller (Mozhaysk, Galich, Zvenigorod) principalities.
At that time, the struggle of the townspeople andpeasants against the boyar, princely and noble exploitation. The feudal war of the 15th century brought many changes. By its end, the majority of the small destinies that were part of the Moscow principality were liquidated, and in this connection the power of the Grand Duke was consolidated.
Considering in more detail the course of this event,you can trace its most significant points. The most decisive clashes took place in 1433-34. Despite the fact that Yuri has made progress, his side was not supported by most of the feudal lords, because of what he could not secure the Moscow Grand Duke's throne.
At the main stage, the feudal war of the 15th centurybeyond the principality and spread to the central and northern regions. The third stage of the military operations for Basil II ended in defeat, as a result of which he was captured and cruelly blinded, and then exiled to Uglich. This period was marked by urban uprisings, flight from the feudal lords of the peasants. At this time Shemyaka was in power, but in 1446 he was expelled from Moscow, and the reign was transferred again to the hands of Basil II.