The explosion of the atomic bomb and the mechanism of its action
The explosion of the atomic bomb is one of the mostsurprising, mysterious and terrible processes. The principle of nuclear weapons is based on a chain reaction. This is a process, the very process of which initiates its continuation. The principle of the hydrogen bomb is based on the reaction of nuclear fusion.
Nuclei of some isotopes of radioactive elements(plutonium, californium, uranium and others) are capable of decay, while capturing a neutron. After that, two or three neutrons are released. Destruction of the nucleus of one atom under ideal conditions can lead to the decay of two or three more, which, in turn, can initiate other atoms. And so on. There is an avalanche-like process of destruction of an increasing number of nuclei with the release of a gigantic amount of energy of breaking atomic bonds. During the explosion, huge energies are released in a very short time. It happens at one point. Therefore, the explosion of an atomic bomb is so powerful and destructive.
To initiate the onset of a chain reaction,It is necessary that the amount of radioactive material exceeds the critical mass. Obviously, we need to take several parts of uranium or plutonium and combine them into one. However, to cause an explosion of an atomic bomb, this is not enough, because the reaction will stop before sufficient energy is released, or the process will proceed slowly. In order to achieve success, it is necessary not only to exceed the critical mass of a substance, but to do it in an extremely short period of time. It is best to use several critical masses. This is achieved by the use of other explosives. And alternate fast and slow explosives.
The first nuclear test was conducted in July1945 in the US near the town of Almogordo. In August of the same year, the Americans used this weapon against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The explosion of the atomic bomb in the city led to terrible destruction and the death of most of the population. In the USSR, atomic weapons were created and tested in 1949.
The hydrogen bomb is a weapon with a very largedestructive force. The principle of its action is based on a thermonuclear reaction, which is a synthesis of lighter hydrogen atoms from heavy helium nuclei. In this case, a very large amount of energy is released. This reaction is analogous to the processes that occur on the Sun and other stars. The thermonuclear synthesis is most easily carried out using isotopes of hydrogen (tritium, deuterium) and lithium.
The first hydrogen warhead was testedAmericans in 1952. In the modern sense, this device can hardly be called a bomb. It was a three-story building filled with liquid deuterium. The first explosion of a hydrogen bomb in the USSR was made six months later. The Soviet thermonuclear ammunition RDS-6 was blown up in August 1953 near Semipalatinsk. The largest hydrogen bomb with a capacity of 50 megatons (Tsar-bomb) was tested by the USSR in 1961. The wave after the explosion of the ammunition rounded the planet three times.