Soil cultivation from phytophthors in autumn: choice of preparations, instructions

A serious problem for any gardeneris late blight, a fungal disease affecting potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers and even strawberries. A rich harvest is the dream of any gardener, both novice and seasoned. But often viral diseases that affect cultures, cross out all the works. How to deal with phytophthora - one of the most dangerous diseases of many plants of phytophthora?

What is Phytophthora

Among the most common diseasesof cultivated plants belongs to the phytophthora, the very name of which is translated from Greek, as "destroying, destroying". It is caused by fungi-parasites, which settle on the underground and terrestrial organs of the plant, as well as in the soil. They cause rot and wilting of the leaves.

Learn about the fact that the plant is ill, will help the following symptoms:

  • On the leaves appear brown spots, which begin to grow at a high rate. On the stems, the disease manifests itself by the formation of brown spots of irregular shape.
  • After a short while on the tumors appears grayish coating - the spores with which the fungus multiplies.
  • 3-4 days after infection, the disease covers the entire plant and is transmitted to neighboring bushes.
  • In dry weather, the leaves wither and die, when wet - rot.
  • Affected fruits are covered with dark spots that spread rapidly over the entire surface.

The fungus can also infect the tubers of plants, especially potatoes. They form spots that hide a brown fabric underneath.

tillage from phytophthors in autumn

Dangers of the disease

Late blight is a real calamity for any gardener for the following reasons:

  • It spreads quickly. If you do not keep track of and destroy the affected plants on time, the disease will affect all crops and ruin the crop.
  • Reproduction is done by zoosporangia - non-sexual spores, which are very resistant to unfavorable environmental factors.
  • Rainy summer is an ideal breeding ground for zoosporangia, which, once in a suitable environment, rapidly increase in quantity and affect the tissues of cultures.
  • Spores can not only be preserved on the affected planting material, but also overwinter in the soil.
  • If there are signs of fruit infection on tomatoes, then the situation is more difficult with potatoes. It is possible, having dug a crop in the autumn, with horror to find out, that he was lost.

Modern breeders make every effort,to produce tomato and potato varieties resistant to late blight, but so far only achieved relative results: the disease in such varieties develops much more slowly. However, plants resistant to phytophthora are still sick.

Given these circumstances, truck farmers need to make every effort to prevent contamination of crops. Autumn treatment of soil from phytophthora will help.

tillage with copper sulphate in autumn

Fundamental rules

The first stage of disease prevention isdigging in the fall. It is very important to choose a dump digging - that is turning over an earthy coma. The depth of the dig should be equal to one bayonet spade.

It is necessary to observe the rules of agricultural technology: Do not plant potatoes or tomatoes on the same beds for two consecutive seasons, the same applies to strawberries. To achieve the best results, beds can be used only after 3 years.

When planting it is necessary to plant the crops at a certain distance from each other. "Tightness" on the beds is one of the causes of the disease.

These simple recommendations should be followed, but to solve the problem, annual soil treatment by special means is also necessary.

Effective drugs

Popular methods include processingsoil with copper sulfate in autumn. How to do it? The beds, for which Solanaceae are to be planted in the next season, it is necessary to pour a solution of 2-3%, then dig and treat with a fungicide ("Fitosporin-M", "Ordan"). To prepare a solution it is simple: in 10 liters of water 2 spoons of vitriol are added.

phytosporin m

Chemical Industry Achievements

In particularly difficult cases, the abovemeans may be ineffective, so soil cultivation from phytophthors in autumn should be carried out using chemicals. There are several effective tools, the information on which will be presented in the table.

Means against late blight

Name of the preparation

Hazard Class

Short description

Ordan

3

The manufacturer is the domestic company "August". The preparation is available as a white powder for solution preparation. The active substance is copper chloride

«Acrobat MC»

2

Refers to systemic-local fungicides, is produced in granules. Not phytotoxic, danger to bees and earthworms does not represent

«Ditan M 45»

2

Powder of Austrian production, compatible with most drugs. For a person with the observance of precautionary measures is not dangerous

Kurzat R

3

It is an analog of the Ordan

Kurzat M

2

Produced in granules, active substances are cymoxanil and mancoceb

Home

3

Produced in the form of powder, used to prevent late blight

Profit

2

It is a yellow powder

These drugs with the correct and carefulthe application is safe, but it should be remembered that work is done with poisons, so it is necessary to wear gloves and a cotton-gauze dressing in advance, and the treatment should be done in closed clothing.

autumn soil cultivation from phytophthors

Application features

Soil cultivation from phytophthors in autumn should be carried out according to the rules, which are indicated in the instructions to this or that drug. The application of each of them has its own specifics:

  • The Ordan solution should be prepared immediately before use. To treat the soil, it is necessary to dilute 5 g of the drug per liter of water.
  • "Acrobat MC", "Ditan M 45": 20 g of substance per liter of water are taken for the preparation of the solution.
  • "Hom": dosage - 40 g per 10 liters of liquid.

The work of a truck farmer will be facilitated by accurate follow-upinstructions. It is very important to remember that when working with drugs, you should not smoke, eat or drink. To prepare a solution in kitchen ware it is inadmissible.

tillage after potato phytophthora

After tomatoes

Soil cultivation in the greenhouse after tomato phytophthora can be performed with the help of the following preparations:

  • Planzir.
  • Bactofit.
  • Alirin B.
  • Trichodermine.
  • Phytocide M.

These drugs are biologically activefungicides - that is, the means that destroy the fungus. They water the soil in autumn after digging, in the spring the treatment is repeated. It is very important to moisten the soil abundantly so that water with a fungicide penetrates to a depth of 10 cm - this is where the spores are.

Effective in the fight against late blight after tomatoes and "Fitosporin-M", which is considered harmless to crops. To prepare a solution for the greenhouse, dilute in 10 liters of water 6 ml of fungicide.

soil cultivation in the greenhouse after tomato phytophthora

It is very important to process the greenhouse itself - to wash ither solution of laundry soap, both inside and outside. It will not be superfluous to remove the topsoil if this is available. You can also use the method of fumigating sulfur: experienced farmers who do not want to damage the soil using drugs against phytophthora, that's what they do. For this, cuttings or sulfuric beads are purchased. They use sulfur in such a way: a metal sheet is placed on a basin of water to prevent fire, a sulfur mixture is placed on it and ignited. The consumption is quite economical: 1 kg of powder can be used in a 10 sq.m.

After potatoes

It is very important to pay due attention to processingsoil after potato phytophthora. To do this, it is best to use the drug "Shine". One packet is poured into a jar of warm water with a capacity of ½ liter, after which it is mixed into 10 liters of water. At 5 sq.m. soil requires 1-2 buckets. Effective will be and "Fitosporin" (10 liters of water 1 tbsp), which for crops is harmless. The treatment of the soil with Bordeaux liquids will help, which can be prepared independently in enamel or glassware, metal is not suitable for this purpose. How to do:

  • In the first container in a liter of water to dissolve 300 g of copper sulfate.
  • In the second container, 400 g of lime diluted in 2 liters of water.
  • In each of the solutions add the necessary amount of cold water to get 5 liters.
  • Strain the lime with gauze.
  • Mix with vitriol solution.

The resulting liquid must be beautifulblue. You can check it with a litmus strip (as a rule, it is attached to the purchased copper sulfate). Color in blue indicates that everything is done right. If litmus is colored red, the proportions are violated, the lime share should be increased.

preparations against phytophthora

Basic Errors

Consider the main mistakes that gardeners allow in the treatment of soil from fungus:

  • Some truck farmers believe that chlorine-containingdrugs are effective in combating late blight and plentifully moisturize the beds with bleach, but this is not so. The pest will not destroy the pests, but the useful microflora of the soil will cause damage. It is better to use the proven method - the treatment of soil with copper sulfate in autumn.
  • Another common mistake is unwillingnessTo conduct preventive maintenance if in the past season the infection was avoided. This is wrong, it is necessary to conduct activities in this case too, because it is always easier to prevent infection than to fight with the spreading fantastic rate of infection.
  • After careful soil treatment from phytophthorain autumn, some stop there. But you must also not forget about the processing of inventory. This can be done with a solution of potassium permanganate. If you used cords for the garter of tomatoes in a greenhouse, you must also treat them: put them in coils in metal buckets and fill with a solution, wait half an hour.
  • In autumn it is necessary to destroy the tops outsidesite, especially if there have been cases of damage to phytophthora. Some truck farmers forget to do this, leaving the grass to rot in the beds as mulch.

Soil cultivation from phytophthors in autumn will becomean excellent preventive measure that will help protect your crop from this dangerous disease. Therefore, do not neglect the above suggestions.

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