Periodontal disease - what is it? Causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention
A dentist will never say that you are healthy, even if you do not need to install fillings, unless the structure and all the functions of the periodontium, which is a complex of hard and soft tissues surrounding our teeth, are maintained. After all, sometimes a person has pathological changes in the alveolar processes of the jaw, in the ligaments, and also in the gums. And it becomes the main reason that people lose their teeth that are not damaged by caries, and still very strong. In this regard, it is important to recognize periodontal disease in time and eliminate it in time. It is especially necessary to do this with periodontal disease - a difficult and difficult to treat disease.
What is this pathology?
People periodontal disease is called an extensive group of ailments. They all affect the periodontal disease. These include gingivitis and periodontitis, as well as periodontal disease itself.The first of these ailments is nothing more than inflammation of the gums. Periodontitis with periodontal disease are completely different processes. One can speak about them in the case that not only inflammation is observed in the oral cavity, but also the destruction of those tissues that attach the teeth to the jaws.
Symptoms of periodontitis are:
- bleeding gums;
- teeth reel;
- An unpleasant smell from a mouth.
These, as well as some other signs indicate inflammation of the tissues included in the periodontal structure. But sometimes dentists diagnose atrophy of the circulatory tissues in their patients. In this case, periodontal disease is diagnosed. In this disease, the necks of the teeth become bare, their pain sensitivity increases. The constant progression of this pathological process causes quite unpleasant phenomena. Teeth loosened, and later fall out.
Periodontal disease - what is this pathology? The basis of the development of the disease is atrophy of the circulatory tissue. Especially pronounced dystrophic changes occur in the alveolar processes of the jaw. This is manifested by a decrease in the height of the interdental septa.When this occurs, osteoporosis of bone areas. Continuous progression of the pathological process leads to a violation of the fixation of teeth and their loosening, and subsequently - even loss.
What is it - periodontal disease? This is a systemic illness that is non-inflammatory. From consonant with the disease it is distinguished by the absence of bleeding gums. Also with this ailment, the formation of pathological periodontal pockets and accumulation of suppuration in them does not occur. In this connection, a less pronounced unpleasant smell is heard from the mouth with this disease.
According to information provided by WHO, most often people suffer from periodontitis. They account for almost 60% of all cases of the circulatory tissue. A little less likely to go to the dentist about gingivitis. This is 15-18% of all patients. Parodontosis has to be treated in 2% of people who applied to the dentist for gum disease.
The earliest manifestations of pathologies of inflammatory nature in the oral cavity are observed in patients from 10 to 20 years. Moreover, almost 80% of children suffer from gingivitis. Periodontal disease is usually manifested in adulthood.Moreover, this pathology develops gradually. Not a day passes, or even more than one year, so that the clinical picture of the disease becomes clearly visible. Sometimes an illness is formed within 10-15, and sometimes even 20 years. That is why the periodontal disease is always chronic, and only a dentist can diagnose it. However, in recent years, all diseases become "younger." Sometimes dentists also have periodontal disease in their young patients.
Causes of pathology
If the dentist diagnosed periodontal disease, what could this disease cause? The causes of the disease are currently not precisely established. Moreover, in the event of the occurrence of this ailment, it is often said about contributing factors leading to disturbances of the parodontal trophism, as well as the development of pathological changes in it. Their list includes:
- Vascular and heart pathologies (most often atherosclerosis);
- autoimmune pathology of connective tissue;
- failures in the thyroid gland, as well as other endocrine organs;
- bone damage (osteopenia);
- Diseases of the chronic type, which lead to depletion of the body and to a decrease in its immunity.
It is believed that the main causes of periodontal disease lie in hereditary predisposition. At the same time, local factors occurring in the form of tartar or pathogenic microorganisms, most likely, only aggravate the course of pathology, leading to bleeding of the gums, as well as to the periodic occurrence of inflammatory processes in them. It is worth noting that it is heredity that is the main reason why sometimes the development of periodontal disease in children can be observed.
According to experts, pathology is considered the last stage of inflammatory lesions, that is, periodontitis, which is aggravated by common pathologies.
Symptoms of illness
As mentioned above, periodontal disease of the gums is characterized by a long period of development. However, after a certain stage, the pathology progresses literally before our eyes. At the same time it becomes very difficult for a person to chew quickly and painfully. The degree reached by periodontal disease, dentists is determined by the depth of the emerging tooth-pockets. In some cases, these values reach 9-9.5 mm. Also, experts evaluate the gingival bleeding index. This indicator is determined in points.For example, in those cases when, when palpating the tops of the interdental papillae, a bleeding point occurs, one point is given.
The following value is put in the presence of a line of bleeding. It is located on the border of contact of the tooth and gingival papilla. How does the next stage of periodontal disease manifest? 3 points specialist puts when filling the bloody contents of the interdental gap. This is followed by the maximum value of the indicator. 4 points are put in those cases when bleeding from the gingival papilla is observed quite strong. In such cases, 2 or 3 dental spaces, as well as the edge of the gum, are filled with blood.
Parodontosis of the gums is characterized by the presence of a small amount of stones on the enamel, normal fixation of the teeth, as well as exposure of their necks without the formation of signs of inflammation and gum pockets. At the same time wedge-shaped defects are observed. And only when the period of periodontal disease is running, when the roots are exposed by 50 percent or more, the mobility of the teeth is disturbed.
The main symptoms of the disease are:
- pallor of the gums in the absence of signs of inflammation;
- exposure of the cervix, and then the root of the tooth, which looks like its elongation;
- absence of bleeding gums.
Sometimes with periodontal disease enamel erosion and its weariness take place. Often, the presence and various diseases of the heart and blood vessels, endocrine organs, as well as disorders of metabolic processes.
Is the disease contagious?
As already mentioned, periodontal disease does not apply to inflammatory diseases. In other words, its occurrence is not provoked by any viral or microbial factor. In this regard, periodontal infection is nothing more than a fallacy and a myth. The transfer of pathology from person to person is impossible either through household items or through common utensils. You can not catch the disease through kisses, bedding and other accessories, oral or airborne.
Of course, this does not mean that the patient should not follow the rules of personal hygiene. A person should take care of the oral cavity, as pathogenic bacteria can enter the body through damaged tissues.
If you take the factor of hereditary predisposition to the disease, it is worth bearing in mind that it can only have its negative impact, but not at all affect its prevalence.For example, in the presence of periodontal disease in both parents, the likelihood of pathology in children reaches 60%.
Stage of the disease
The definition of therapy for treating gum disease depends on the degree of pathology. There are five of them:
- Initial. This stage proceeds completely unnoticed by humans. Very often, it is not determined even by a dentist. After all, the patient does not complain about anything, and the changes in the periodontal X-ray images are not visible. Nevertheless, the pathological process has already begun.
- First. How is parodontosis characterized at this stage? What are the signs by which a disease can be identified? At the first stage, the gum is lowered slightly. A person notes a slight sensitivity of the teeth, which he feels while performing hygienic procedures, as well as eating. However, such problems occur only occasionally. When performing radiography at the first stage, arising atrophy in bone tissue becomes apparent. But there are no violations of the connective connections, the teeth remain motionless.
- The second. At this stage, the neck of the teeth is exposed.The patient receives complaints of high sensitivity. Sometimes bleeding occurs. In the second stage, the integrity of the interdental septa has not yet been disrupted. Nevertheless, X-rays indicate the presence of pathological changes in the alveolar process.
- Third. At this stage of development of periodontal disease, tooth mobility occurs. Their necks are half exposed. The alveolar process loses 1 mm in height.
- Fourth. At this stage, the teeth become very mobile. Two-thirds of their necks are exposed. And only the tip of the root remains in the hole. It is worth noting that the fourth stage in the development of pathology is an extreme degree of the disease. When it becomes inevitable removal of most or even all the teeth.
As already noted, at the initial stage of the disease there are no any clinical manifestations. At this stage, the person does not complain of pain. The presence of such an uncomfortable condition can be considered a clear sign of an already developing ailment, as well as its exacerbation. Soreness, as well as sensitivity of the gums when hot or cold food gets into the mouth, or when biting a solid product,are typical symptoms of the second and third pathology.
Thus, it can be noted that pain during periodontal disease is usually associated with food. In this case, it is the main traumatic factor of a mechanical nature, to which the atrophied tissue in the gums very sensitively reacts. In addition, pain symptoms often occur due to an abscess. The development of this pathological process with periodontal disease occurs in the resulting gum pocket. The pain in this case has a pulsating and rather strong character, sometimes accompanied by an increase in body temperature.
However, the presence of discomfort during periodontal disease is not required. The pain only in rare cases is acute. As a rule, they feel it at the stage of exacerbation of the disease.
Danger of illness
What are the consequences of periodontal disease? These include a large list of uncomfortable conditions and problems, as well as quite serious diseases. To bring the disease to the stage of exacerbation, which will lead to negative pathological results, can be severe fatigue, stress, the common cold, menopause and pregnancy, as well as any hormonal changes that can strengthen the destructive dystrophic process.
Among the psycho-emotional and general social consequences of the disease, as well as its effects on general health, there are:
- the presence of anxiety and the question constantly asked by man: “Is periodontal disease treated?” for fear of losing almost all the teeth;
- conducting a long, almost lifelong course of therapy;
- psychological discomfort in connection with visible defects in the oral cavity (lengthening of the teeth with the exposure of their roots);
- the occurrence of a chronic inflammatory process in the pulp;
- developing osteomyelitis (a disease of bone tissue affecting the upper and lower jaw);
- disturbing abscesses;
- intoxication of the body, which is observed during a prolonged complex purulent process, when decomposition products penetrate into the lymph and bloodstream;
- The likelihood of inflammation in the kidneys, as well as endocarditis;
- aggravation of joint ailments.
To prevent the occurrence of complications, prevention of periodontal disease is necessary, as well as the treatment of the disease at its initial stage.
Effective treatment of periodontal disease is a variety of manipulations that contribute to the stabilization of the pathological process.At the same time, experts note that no funds available to date can completely save the patient from the illness. A person needs to tune in to long-term maintenance therapy.
The periodontist conducts specific dental treatment. In addition, an individual program is developed for each patient, sometimes requiring the involvement of specialists from other medical fields (endocrinologists, general practitioners, orthopedic dentists, etc.).
One of the most important features of the medical care, which is sick with periodontal disease, is an integrated approach. It is a combination of orthopedic, surgical, auxiliary and other methods of treatment. At the same time, even before the patient begins to undergo the course, it is necessary to start eliminating the underlying disease (diabetes, atherosclerosis, etc.).
These methods of getting rid of periodontal disease include:
- sanation of the oral cavity, which includes the treatment of caries, removal of dental plaque, remineralization of enamel;
- drug treatment, in which drugs are prescribed,contributing to the improvement of microcirculation in the tissues of the gums, biogenic stimulants, as well as such agents for periodontal disease, as mineral and vitamin complexes;
- local treatment with pharmaceuticals, in which injections from periodontal disease are prescribed, with the use of aloe extract, FiBSa, as well as lidaze;
- the use of antibiotics in the form of gels and solutions for rinsing, as a rule, from the group of fluoroquinolones and glycosides, eliminating inflammation in the gums,
- enrichment of tissues with oxygen, for which paste from periodontal disease is used, as well as a special rinse (these funds can be of different types, but they certainly contain a whole range of active ingredients that, when exposed to the gums, reduce their bleeding and inflammation).
Similar methods are used in severe forms of pathology. And given that patients, as a rule, turn to a specialist already at the last stage of the ailment, surgery is sometimes the only best option for preserving teeth. In this case, a specialist can be done one of two types of surgery: curettage or patchwork.
Surgical intervention will require mandatory patient preparation in the form of splinting of teeth, antibiotic therapy, anti-inflammatory treatment, etc.
During the curettage operation, granulation formations are removed that are under the gumline. At the same time, gum pockets are eliminated, and the resulting space is filled with a synthetic bone substitute.
Patchwork operation involves the above-described manipulations, but, in addition, the removal of a thin layer of pathologically changed gums adjacent to the tooth. After all, it is because of this that the prerequisites for the further development of inflammation are created.
Currently, parodontologis most often used membrane technology. It involves the installation of self-absorbing membranes in the interdental spaces. These elements contribute to the better engraftment of those cell cultures and bone tissues that have been planted to the patient.
In those cases when the teeth are kept only on soft tissues, having lost the bone frame around them, they should be removed. After all, no surgical methods and medicines can help them.In the future, the dentist offers his patient prosthetics.
In addition to the periodontal disease recommended by a specialist, the blood supply in the gums can improve:
- massage, which is carried out either with fingers, or using special equipment;
- treatment of gums and teeth with ultrasound;
- phonophoresis with antibiotics and vitamins;
- laser treatment.
How to prevent the disease? To do this, should be carried out prevention of periodontal disease. For example, it is recommended to use various drugs, including in their composition whole complexes of vitamins and microelements. These are such means as "Multitab" and "Centrum". But before you buy them in a pharmacy, you must consult with your doctor. He may recommend coping with impaired mineral metabolism with an ordinary diet that includes foods rich in copper and iron, antioxidants and vitamins.
To eliminate the risk of periodontal disease than rinsing your mouth? At home, it can be decoctions and infusions of various medicinal plants.For example, they can be prepared from the leaves of the lingonberry flowers of violet or calendula, oak bark.
When changing the structure of the gums, an infusion made from walnut leaves helps. And to help strengthen the teeth tincture, which includes 4 tablespoons. l