Mold fungi and yeast. The structure of mold fungi
The kingdom of mushrooms is one of the most unusual and impressive in the world of wildlife. The diversity of these organisms is really impressive, and their properties are worthy of careful study. Some people encounter some of their species every day, without even thinking that these are mushrooms. It is on such varieties and it is worth staying in more detail.
What are the mushrooms?
This kingdom has a complex classification. Most people understand only one type of mushroom, the main one is a hat. It includes both edible and poisonous options - mushrooms, truffles, boletus, chanterelles, toadstools, toadstools and many others.
Another, even more interesting species are the mold fungi. They differ in microscopic size, due to which the fruiting body and mycelium is almost impossible to notice with the naked eye. But in general, seeing them is not at all difficult - it is enough to leave a piece of bread in a wet place, and soon a familiar fluffy touch will appear on it.These are mold fungi, namely, saprophytes, an inedible species that often spreads in fruits, vegetables, soil, and walls of damp, dark rooms.
The third type is yeast. They are known to man for a long time and distributed as well as mold fungi. For example, people owe it to them to the existence of bread, beer, wine and kvass. Mold fungi and yeast reproduce equally well in the daily environment for humans, but, unlike the former, preferring dampness and twilight, the latter require sugar. But there is also a common one - it is also impossible to examine the yeast in details without a microscope. To date, man knows 1500 of their varieties.
This type differs from all others in that it has lost the mycelial structure that is classical for the kingdom. Yeast lives in a liquid or semi-liquid medium filled with organic matter. They exist as dividing or budding cells. Such a structure allows them to have the highest metabolic rate, so they can grow and reproduce quickly. Despite the fact that mold fungi and yeast seem to be similar due to their microscopic size, the former still have mycelium and all the characteristic features, while the latter make up one cell.The history of the origin of the name of such a variety is interesting. The word "yeast" is associated with a shiver that can be seen on the fermented wort or rising dough.
Peculiarities of mold fungi
This species retains most of the properties of hat species. At the same time they differ in microscopic size. Mold fungi form the thinnest branched mycelium, from which large fruit bodies are not separated. They were the first inhabitants of the planet Earth, on which appeared more than two hundred million years ago. Mycelium of mold fungus develops in almost all conditions in nature, regardless of the availability of food and habitat features. Huge colonies instantly appear in the presence of moisture and a sufficiently high temperature.
Types of fungi are very numerous, but they have common features - the basis is mycelium, and thin branching threads are placed directly inside the affected surface. Unlike yeast, they reproduce sexually or vegetatively. The mold fungus cell does not make up the entire body. However, this does not prevent them from spreading with great speed.
The most famous mold fungi
Some of the representatives of the kingdom are more important for humanity than others. These are fungi of the penicillus fungi, which are green spots that grow on plant substrates and common foods. Of these, an antibiotic is produced called penicillin, which was the world's first antibacterial drug. His invention changed the world of medicine. Both mold fungi and bacteria can be harmful to human health. But a variety called penicillus can save lives, and this has earned its wide popularity.
One of the most common species are Phycomycetes, or mukor fungi. In this family, there are more than three hundred species. The most common are three: Mucor, Thamnidium and Rhizopus. The structure of mold fungi mukor differs in that their mycelium often consists of a single branched cell. Balloon hyphae, filled with many disputes, depart from it. The spread of mucor occurs easily and quickly on many types of the substrate, with the exception of dairy products, and stops only at temperatures that are below -8 degrees Celsius.
Penicillus mushrooms, as well as some others, for example, of the genus Aspergillus, belong to this family. Otherwise, this class is called marsupials. While the mold fungi mukor form a primitive single-celled mycelium, ascomycetes have a more complex structure, which quickly forms separate colonies from each other, spreading along the substrate. It instantly forms spores, to which the mold owes its fluffy appearance of a grayish-green color. When studying under a microscope, the reasons for the name become obvious - the structure of mold fungi includes long chains of conidia containing spores, which form a brush or a bag. The ideal conditions for development are dampness and poor ventilation at temperatures close to 0 degrees Celsius.
Difference between Aspergillus and Penicillum
Located in the same family, these molds are similar in appearance. They have a colorless mycelium with colored conidia of spherical shape, as a rule, they have a grayish-blue or gray-green shade, less often with a yellow subtone. However, the role of aspergillus molds is markedly different. While penicillin serves as an important component of drugs, in a penicillary form of the drug contains substancescausing spoilage of dairy or meat products.
This class is not as widely studied as described above. Imperfect types of mold fungi reproduce in a way that differs from the sexual way, unknown in details. They are distinguished by septic mycelium with uviform spores of dark coloration. Because of this, the defeat of such fungi forms black velvety spots. Such mold develops well at low temperatures and is characterized by a large area of damage - when it appears on the meat it penetrates deep into the muscle tissue. It is these mushrooms that can lead to internal mold, spoil the butter, cheese, egg products.
Mushrooms of the variety Oidium lactis resemble yeast in their structure. They have a white septic mycelium with separated spores in the form of single cells. Nutrition of mold fungi of this species includes a variety of dairy products. Their appearance is manifested in the form of fluffy white plaque, which can cover the surface of sour cream, yogurt or cottage cheese. Mold reduces their acidity, causing the product to deteriorate. Some scientists attribute them to yeast by virtue of the simplicity of cell chains and felt mycelium.
Mold that multiplies in the fridge
Foods that are stored at a sufficiently low temperature can be affected by several varieties of mushrooms. First of all, it is Botrytis, distinguished by a creeping mycelium of felt-like type, with colorless conidia, emerging bundles. The fungi also include those that are distinguished by brown or olive conidiophores. A similar view develops in a refrigerator at temperatures below 5 degrees Celsius and affects a variety of foods. Another dangerous food to eat is Alternaria. These include mushrooms with pear-shaped or pointed conidia of brown or olive color. Such mold can affect not only chilled, but also frozen meat, as well as butter and other foodstuffs.
These fungi are different from all other original structure. They do not form an external mycelium and most often develop inside the substrate undergoing the process of decay. For reproduction, Phoma mold fungi use short conidiophores with intertwined hyphae surrounding them as a shell.
How does mold affect the human body?
Not all types of fungi are as beneficial to humanity as penicilla. More often, the situation is quite the opposite, and the appearance of mold is an unkind sign.First of all, its spores have a very negative effect on the mucous membranes of the body, causing immune reactions. It is one of the most powerful allergens, and people with certain problems in this area will be guaranteed discomfort at the slightest contact with mold. And it's not just a short-term reaction - over time, everything can end in serious illness. In homes affected by mold fungi, eight out of ten people develop asthma. The figure is very impressive. And this is not all possible problems.
A person with a weakened immune system may have other diseases. Almost a thousand types of fungi can parasitize on humans or domestic animals, causing skin, hair or nails diseases - ringworm, candidiasis, blastomycosis and others.
Even without affecting human health, mold can cause serious harm. For example, parasitic fungi on animals and plants can spread to food products, materials and leather goods, paper, plastic and wood, works of art, which inevitably cause damage to the affected area. Such a mold can cause great damage.
How to deal with mold in the house?
If there is such a problem, you need to think about ways to destroy fungi as soon as possible. To do this, use a special antiseptic, which can be purchased at a building materials store. It is necessary to work with him as carefully as possible, having studied the instructions for use. In addition, before starting the fight against mold, it is worth examining how deeply the surface is affected. Sometimes it is better to discard an infected object. If the defeat is not that big, you can take action. First of all, pay attention to the antiseptic primer. It will not only destroy the mold, but also prevent its reappearance. To use such a tool is quite simple, most often you do not even need to dilute with water. It is recommended only to clean the surface before processing.
If there is no opportunity or desire to look for a special tool, you should refer to home methods. For example, bleach can be an excellent option. Sodium hypochlorite contained in it kills not only mold, but also its spores. Bleach is ideal for cases when you need to clean the tile in the bathroom, floor or glass.But for other items it can be dangerous - many things lose color or deteriorate from such processing. In addition, the bleach is quite toxic, so it should be used only in a room that is well ventilated, armed with protective rubber gloves.
Vinegar is less dangerous in such cases. It is not so toxic, so it can be used without fear. Vinegar should be used with a spray or wetting it with a rag and wiping the affected mold surface.
Those who do not find such a tool in the arsenal will use hydrogen peroxide. It can be bought at any pharmacy, it is not dangerous to health and does not have a pungent odor. With the help of peroxide, you can cope with mold on a variety of surfaces, but you must consider its whitening effect, which can be dangerous for fabrics or dyes.
For hard surfaces like tiles and glass, liquid ammonia is also suitable. It is enough to mix it with water in equal proportions with water and spray the mixture throughout the infected area, and after a few hours rinse it with water.
The safest remedy will be baking soda.She does not harm either family members or pets. To combat mold, a teaspoon of soda is dissolved in a glass of water, after which the mixture can be sprayed on the affected surface. Flush the solution is not necessary - it will be a prophylactic agent.