According to the materialist point of view, the psyche is one of the properties of the brain. In other words, the brain is considered an organ of mental activity.
Opposite to the materialistic theoryIdealistic interpretation indicates the existence of a kind of "soul". It (the soul), in the opinion of idealist philosophers, exists independently and does not depend on the environment or the human body, while controlling human feelings, thoughts, will.
Materialist philosophers consider the idealistic understanding of the essence of the psyche to be wrong at the root, since the latter runs counter to the accumulated knowledge and experience of man.
For the most correct understanding of the essence of disorders of mental activity, one should in general terms know what the basic mental processes are.
There is a conditional classification. It is conditional because the groups (only three) to which mental processes are divided are interrelated and represent the different sides of one mental activity.
Thus, they distinguish:
- Intellectual processes. They contribute to the development of cognitive human activity.
- Emotional mental processes. They are a reflection of the attitude of the person to himself and to the environment.
- Volitional processes. They are conditioned by common human activity.
The beginning of cognitive activity coincides withthe appearance of sensation. Thanks to him, certain properties of surrounding objects and phenomena are reflected in the human brain. Thus, people with the help of the senses (sight, hearing, smell) are able to distinguish smells, colors, sounds and so on.
After the appearance of sensation, perception arises. This stage of cognitive activity reflects a complex of various characteristics of phenomena and objects. Thus, an integral image is formed. Images perceived by a person are fixed, remaining in the brain. Thus, human representations are formed.
Unconscious mental processes are related tothe back of the human consciousness. Experts divide this category into three groups. The first include unconscious mechanisms for conscious action. The second - the drivers of these same actions. The third group consists of superconscious mental processes.
The first group is divided into three subgroups. So, the mechanisms include:
- Unconscious automatisms. These are acts or actions that take place without the participation of consciousness. Automatisms can be primary (blinking, sucking movements, capturing objects, etc.) and secondary (skills that have passed through consciousness and ceased to be realized).
- Unconscious installation. It is a willingness to commit a specific action or react in a certain way.
- Unconscious escorts. These movements perform an accompanying role. For the accompanying carry, for example, facial expressions.
Study of the second group - unconsciousthe initiators of conscious action - began Sigmund Freud. Having determined the direction in the 20th century of all psychological science in the world, he gave psychology a central importance in the development of human culture. Thus, the theory of psychoanalysis was created.
U. James first described the unconscious mental processes. In his opinion, they are the formation of an integral product as a result of a great work without the participation of consciousness (unconscious). This product subsequently invades a person's life, usually by changing it radically. Such processes include creative thinking, personal crises, experiences of severe events, and others. Superconsciousness in this case is determined by the fact that the time scale and content of these phenomena is greater than that capable of containing human consciousness.