Kidney stones, symptoms, prevention
For most people, kidney stones most often provoke harsh, unbearable pain. With large stones, when they overlap the ureters, the doctor is forced to apply aggressive treatment. It is not recommended to drink painkillers if the diagnosis is not established and the source of pain is not determined.
Sand and kidney stones. What is it
Stone formation is caused by salts and minerals in the urine. Kidney stones have a solid structure, and the size ranges from small pebble to large, sometimes as a golf ball. Through the urinary tract, they exit the kidneys, sometimes blocking the flow of urine.
Symptoms and signs
Background to the formation of stones
Most often the disease occurs in those people who:
- drink water in insufficient quantities;
- have this disease in relatives, while their age category is from 30 to 60 years;
- live in the southern regions of Russia, where it is very dry and hot.
Kidney stones cause
Urolithiasis occurs if there are too many mineral salts in the urine.Sometimes the stone gets stuck when exiting the ureter from the kidney, which leads to acute pain when urinating.
Types of stones
In urolithiasis, the formation of oxalate, urate and phosphate stones most often occurs. Urates and oxalates grow slowly. Phosphate stones in the kidneys are rapidly increasing and turning into large coral, associating with pyelonephritis.
Kidney stones are detected by such examinations as ultrasound, radiography, intravenous and retrograde pyelogram, and computed tomography.These methods help to accurately determine the size and their location, as well as predict the likelihood of whether they can get out on their own or require aggressive treatment of the disease.
Kidney stones treatment
Conservative treatment is used when the stones are small enough and can independently come out during urination. The doctor usually advises to drink plenty of water to help push the stone. In some cases, pain killers are prescribed to relieve pain. If you can detect a stone in the urine, you can analyze its composition.This will provide an opportunity to identify products that promote stone formation in the patient's body. Surgical treatment is indicated for large stones.
Prevention of kidney stone formation
- Adhere to drinking regime.
- Do not drink more than 2 cups of caffeinated beverages every day, including coffee, tea and cola.
- Change the power. When oxalate stones should limit the consumption of chocolate, concentrated citrus juices, beer, tea, vitamin C supplements, or dark green vegetables. When calcium stones need to limit salt intake.
- With uric acid stones it is necessary to reduce the use of poultry, meat and fish.