Human internal organs: structure, description
Man is a complex biological mechanism. Once launched, it works all its life, periodically demanding a “repair”, which can be preventive, if the owner of the body takes care of it, or emergency.
General concepts about the internal structure of the body
The body has two large cavities that contain the main internal organs of a person. The structure of the chest is such that the musculoskeletal skeleton formed by it performs the function of protecting the vital systems of the body. The abdominal cavity is a reservoir for the "storage" of the digestive organs. They are protected by a rather thick abdominal wall and broad back muscles. The organs of the genitourinary system are located in the pelvis.Practically all the internal organs of a man received their structure in the course of evolution - they are hollow inside, because along them the movement of food, air or biological fluids constantly takes place.Only some of them have a parenchymal structure, that is, a dense structure. Hollow internal organs have three main layers and several sublayers. Let us dwell on their description in more detail:
- The mucous layer (or shell) lines the surface from the inside. It is covered with epithelial goblet cells. The mucus they excrete protects organs from various kinds of damage. The mucous layer also has many vessels, lymphatic tissue and vesicles that perform certain functions.
- The muscular layer is a smooth tissue, which consists of two layers - deep and superficial. Their successive reduction provides the process of moving content through life support systems.
- The serous layer is covered with mesothelium, secreting a secret that protects organs from negative influence from the outside.
The structure of human internal organs (the photo of the model is presented above), or rather, possession of knowledge about it, helps to understand the mechanism of all processes, including the development of pathologies and diseases. The heart is the main engine, without which life is impossible. His impulse contractions occur constantly, they are uncontrollable and work spontaneously, periodically accelerating or slowing down the pace.It all depends on external and internal factors, such as physical exertion or the level of oxygen at a certain point in the environment.
The structure of the heart is quite complicated. It begins to shrink in the fetus in the womb already at 3 weeks of gestation, in the form of a leaf. In 6 weeks there is its internal division by partitions into 4 parts.
Blood feeds all external and internal organs of a person. The structure of the heart allows it to form two circles of blood circulation together with the blood vessels. Small enriches red blood cells with oxygen in the lungs. A large circle nourishes the entire body. Each heart has 4 valves. Perhaps their damage - congenital or acquired. This is a heart defect. The body itself consists of three layers: the endocardium, myocardium and pericardium, each of which performs a specific function.
There is nothing more perfect than the anatomical structure of man. Internal organs are integrated into systems and cannot exist one without the other. The air enters the lungs through the external respiratory tract, where it is cleaned and heated. Blood carries oxygen throughout the body.
The bronchi, trachea, larynx, of course, play a large role, delivering air while inhaling and expelling carbon dioxide during exhalation, but gas exchange occurs in the lungs. This is a paired organ that is located in the chest cavity. Interestingly, the left lung is slightly smaller than the right. This is due to the fact that next to it is adjacent the heart, which requires a certain place for normal work. The structure of the lungs is segmental. The right body is divided into three parts, the left - into two. The lungs have a bronchial tree and alveoli - small "bubbles", lined from the inside by a surfactant - a special bacteriological substance.
The digestive system also refers to the concept of "human internal organs." The structure of all elements of the gastrointestinal tract is hollow, resembling a tube with various extensions and folds along its entire length. The upper section, the esophagus, forms two sphincter valves in the muscle layer. One of them is in its upper section, and the other is in the lower one. If the sphincters are working properly, then the food, passing into the stomach, is not able to return to the esophagus. If there is a defect in the valves, then reflux causing discomfort is likely in most cases.
The structure of human internal organs (photos are present in the article) clearly demonstrates the evolutionary wisdom of nature. The stomach, just like the esophagus, has two sphincter valves - cardiac (upper) and pyloric (lower). Thanks to them, the food moves in one direction. The function of the stomach is to ensure the partial crushing of the protein content and its treatment with hydrochloric acid. The work of this important organ cannot be qualitatively carried out without the inclusion of pancreatic and duodenal enzymes in the process. Important in the digestive system are the nervous and vascular systems.
The pyloric sphincter transports the stomach-treated food into the duodenum, which is the upper section of the longest organ of a person. The structure of a person’s internal organs demonstrates an organ, like a horseshoe, which “embraces” the pancreas. The duodenum has its sphincter, called Oddi. He misses the bile and pancreatic juice, which are actively involved in digestion.The inner part of the duodenum is covered with villi producing duodenal juice containing enzymes and certain hormones, for example, cholecystokinin.
To understand how the body works, it is important to know the structure of the person. The internal organs, the liver among which is not the last, are interconnected. Having excluded one link from the chain, the organism ceases to exist or does not function in full.
The liver is an integral part of the digestive tract, but, in addition, it performs a unique function of cleansing the blood from harmful substances, toxins, heavy metals. The organ has a lobular parenchymal structure. The liver is involved in the process of blood coagulation, producing special protein fractions, as well as red corpuscles - red blood cells. The organ is prone to diseases of various origins. If this happens, the composition of the blood changes noticeably, which has a detrimental effect on various life support systems, and the brain is affected first. If you follow the necessary diet and general prescriptions of a doctor, the liver cells regenerate quickly enough.
Human structure, internal organs (including the spleen) are presented in various anatomical atlases. Topographically determine the location of any element is not difficult. However, not everyone is aware of the functional significance of each of them. For example, the spleen is a kind of graveyard of the human body, where waste cells die.In addition, it is a significant part of the immune system, both in importance and in size. The spleen is also involved in the formation of platelets and neutrophils, when the inflammatory process cannot be compensated by other forces of the body.
We continue to consider the topic: "The structure of man: internal organs." The kidneys play the role of a natural filter, releasing excess water and waste substances from the body, such as urea, creatinine, and various forms of toxins and drugs. The urethra has anatomical features associated with the floor. In women, it is significantly shorter and wider than in men. This specific structure allows the infection to use the canal as an entrance gate and quickly infect the kidneys, causing various diseases.
Externally, the kidneys (two of them) are similar to beans. The outer layer is a medulla.On the incision, the kidney resembles a sponge, the function is similar. Interestingly, if a long time does not empty the bladder, the secreted accumulates and stagnates in the renal pelvis. Then the process of reverse reabsorption of harmful substances into the blood occurs. As a result, the body is self-poisoning.
Male reproductive system
Without the process of reproduction and procreation, the existence of mankind is impossible. Due to the specificity and purpose of the structure of a person, the internal organs of a man and a woman have a fundamental difference. It begins with their location.
Men have a reproduction system consisting of organs located outside the body, in the pelvic area. They can be divided into three conditional groups.
- Production and storage of sperm. This function is performed by the testes located in the scrotum. Warm sperm moves to the epididymis, where it continues its development.
- Production of ejaculatory fluid. Glands such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate cope with this work. The movement of fluid occurs along the sperm duct.
- Move the fluid to the egg cell. Occurs with the participation of the external genital - penis and Cowper's glands.
Female reproductive system
Female reproductive organs are located inside the pelvis and consist of the vagina, uterus and ovaries. In the latter, maturation of the cells involved in the fertilization process takes place. The uterus is the cavity for the development of the fetus during pregnancy. It has a large number of vessels and a muscular layer capable of stretching.