How to survive in the forest without food
We all believe that nothing can happen to us. That our train will never get off the rails, the car will not stop in the middle of the road with a broken wheel, and the campaign for mushrooms will end successfully and the path will lead directly to the house. Usually, in 99.9% of cases, this is exactly what happens.
However, every thousandth still has no luck. If you think about this constantly, it's easier to sit at home and not stick your nose out the door, saying goodbye to hikes and travel. Although in order to safely get out of such a scrape, in fact, you need quite a bit: to take with you a map of the area, a spare tire and a repair kit when you go on the road, matches and a knife when you go for mushrooms. The rules, how not to get lost, are very simple. Surviving, getting lost, is also easy - so much so that even girls from high school, behind the group, are able to spend several days in the forest and safely wait for the rescuers to find them.
About how to build a hut and get the simplest dishes, we wrote below. But much more importantwhat all pilots and astronauts teach and what all tourists should know, whether they prefer sightseeing or individual hiking trips, is the answer to the question of how to find food in the forest.
Our ancestors looked with surprise at people who do not know how to survive in the forest - a place that for centuries has fed people. But today, the overwhelming majority of tourists who find themselves in extreme conditions are able to die of hunger, passing by a richly laid table of forest dishes. In fact, the most nutritious and simple protein food is in any traveler right under their feet. And for her capture does not need a gun or knife. Enough shovels or, at worst, stick-digging. Because this protein-rich food is earthworms.
In order to survive, you have to eat them. It is enough to dig a guest worms and place them for several hours in running water to make out the digested soil. To look at such food is almost impossible, but it is quite realistic. They even have a taste - they are far from exquisite, but all the same. Even better rinse and soaked worms - in this form to eat them much nicer.
The next forest-meat dish is a frequent guest in restaurants, especially French ones. Of course, our frogs are not nearly as large as those served in France, but you can eat them, because they taste almost like chicken, and they are quite common in the forest. And catch them easy.
The main thing is to remove the skin and put the paws on the sticks to fry. You can eat raw, but people are more used to hot and cooked food.
Mice get harder, but it's also possible. Observations of polar wolves and subsequent experiments on humans, described by Farley Mowat, showed that a person who eats field mice entirely, along with the internal organs, receives a complete set of substances necessary for vital activity and may not even suffer from beriberi.
With the meat menu sorted out. The second dish that is necessary for a person is bread. Of course, a tourist can stumble on an abandoned, but sown field or pick up the fringe, abandoned by the forty, but in fact, bread in the forest can be obtained much easier. Especially if you meet a river or a lake.
Large white lotus-like flowers, rounded leaves - like a water lily or white lily.Now they are not so much left on the Russian reservoirs, but if it is a question of human life, it is not necessary to choose. The rhizome of the water lily is 49% starch, 8% is protein, and about 20% is sugar. Of course, before nibbling it, you will have to dry, grind into flour and soak in running water to remove tannins. But then, after drying, this flour can be used for baking bread over the bonfire or dough-streaks, wound on sticks, or simply to whiten her soup-blubber for satiety.
By the way, such flour can be made from acorns and even dandelion roots, eternal weed and thunderstorms in the dacha plots. However, they also have to be dried first, then twice soaked and then dried again, ground into flour or cereal to create a porridge, but when hungry, it is not necessary to pick and choose.
It will fit the flour and rhizome of the cattail - the very one from which the children make spears, calling it reed. Moreover, its root can no longer be soaked, just cut into pieces, dry, grind and bake, boil as much as you want.
And if you fry the root pieces, you can also make a coffee drink from them.Not Arabica, of course, but invigorates on the march, and what else from the reeds do you want? You can still collect young shoots, boil them and serve to the frog's feet - the taste of the shoots resemble asparagus. Distantly, of course. But the menu for the forest "French" restaurant is almost ready.
Iceland lichen, which is found in central Russia in pine forests, is also edible. And not only for deer. It contains 44% of soluble starch lechenina and about 3% sugar. In order for a person to eat it, it is necessary to deprive the lichen of bitter substances. Therefore, Icelandic moss soaked with soda or potash during the day. For those who are not accustomed to carrying soda on an industrial scale, it may be advisable to pour Icelandic moss with ashes. Approximately 2 tablespoons of ash per liter of water, add two more liters of water and you can soak grams of one hundred Icelandic moss. After a day, the moss should be washed and soaked for another day in plain water. And after either dry, grind and add to other flour, or boil in the jelly and pour the jelly from the extracted meat or jelly from forest berries. In addition, the clever Swedes are driving alcohol from Icelandic lichen.So the forest is not only ready to feed and shelter any stray tourist, but also to give the skilful the opportunity to have fun and get warm from the inside.
Of the other green edible plants that are usually forgotten, burdock is worth mentioning. It is best to collect its roots in early spring or late autumn, but in summer they are quite capable of feeding the tourist. They can be eaten raw, boiled, and even better baked. Completely replaces potatoes, carrots or celery. And if you boil the peeled and sliced roots of burdock with sorrel or sorrel, you can get an excellent sweet and sour jam.
The habitual and seemingly useless plant wood insect can also be eaten - in salads, soups, or even mashed potatoes. They act in exactly the same way with acidity, snytka and hare cabbage. And the young ones will completely replace the Brussels sprouts in the forest green soups or in the baked form, as a side dish.
The forest table is not as familiar as our ordinary, but much richer than ordinary tourists. When you have canned food and cereals with you, you can neglect it, but you still need to know about it. And then, in an extreme situation, decide: whether to die of starvation next to such exquisite dishes.
one more article. . . .
Survival in the forest
There are many cases when people, having gone to the forest and not having enough experience and knowledge of local conditions, easily got off the road and, having lost orientation, found themselves in a distressful situation.
How should a man who is lost in the forest behave?
Having lost orientation, he should immediately stop moving and try to restore it with a compass or using various natural signs. If this is difficult, you should arrange temporary parking in a dry place, which is not easy to do, especially in mossy forests, where the ground is covered with a solid carpet of sphagnum, greedily absorbing water (500 parts of water per part of dry matter). A shelter, a hut, a dugout can serve as a temporary shelter.
In warm weather, you can limit yourself to building a simple canopy. Two 1.5-meter-wide stakes with a hand thickness and forks at the end are driven into the ground at a distance of 2-2.5 meters from each other.
A thick pole-a bearing beam-is laid on the fork. Four to five poles are attached to it at an angle of 45-60 ° and fixed with a rope or flexible branches. They (parallel to the ground) are tied with three - four poles - rafters,on which, starting from the bottom, tile-like (so that each subsequent layer covers the underlying approximately half), lapnik, branches with dense foliage or bark are placed.
Spruce branches or dry moss make bedding. The canopy is dug in by a shallow groove so that water does not flow under it in case of rain.
The dvukhskatny tent is more convenient for housing. It is built on the same principle, but the poles are stacked on both sides of the beam. The front part of the hut serves as an entrance, and the back part is covered with one or two poles and braided with spruce branches. Before proceeding with the construction, it is necessary to prepare materials - branches, bars, lapnik, bark.
To obtain pieces of bark of the right size, on the trunk of larch, deep vertical incisions (up to the wood) are carried out at a distance of 0.5-0.6 m from each other. Then, from above and below, these strips are notched with large teeth 10–12 cm across and carefully peeled off the bark with an ax or knife. In winter, for the shelter you can build a snow trench. It is opened in the snow at the foot of a large tree. The bottom of the trench is lined with several layers of lapnik, and the top is covered with poles, tarpaulin, parachute fabric.
How to navigate in the forest?
Being in the taiga, it is difficult to move among the debris and windbreaks, in dense forest overgrown with shrubs. The apparent similarity of the situation (trees, folds, etc.) can completely disorient a person, and he will move in a circle, unaware of his mistake. But, knowing the various signs, you can navigate around the world even without a compass.
Thus, the bark of birch and pine on the north side is darker than on the south, and the trunks of trees, stones, protrusions of the rocks are thicker covered with moss and lichen. Pitch drops on the trunks of conifers stand out from the north side less abundantly than from the south. All these signs are clearly expressed in a separate tree on a clearing or edge.
To maintain the intended direction, usually choose a well-marked landmark every 100-150 m of the route. This is especially important if the path is blocked by a blockage or a dense shrub that forces you to deviate from the right direction. Attempting to go ahead is always fraught with injury.
Movement in the forest
The transition in the taiga in winter is extremely difficult, when the snow cover is very deep and it is almost impossible to overcome the snow-covered areas without ski-snowshoes.Such skis with a known skill are made in the form of a frame from two branches 2-2.5 cm thick and 140-150 cm long. The front end of the ski, having steamed in water, is bent up and the frame (the width in the center should not be less than 30 cm) braid thin flexible branches. In front of the ski, four transverse and two longitudinal slats make footing the size of the shoe.
In winter, you can move along the riverbeds of frozen rivers, while observing the necessary precautions. So, we must remember that the current usually breaks the ice from below, and it becomes especially thin under snowdrifts on steep banks. In the riverbeds with sandy shallows, often there are deposits which, when frozen, turn into peculiar dams.
Most often they are hidden under deep snow and difficult to detect. Therefore, it is better to bypass all obstacles on the river ice, and in places of river bends one should stay away from the steep bank, where the current is faster and the ice is thinner. Often, after the river freezes, the water level decreases so quickly that under pockets of thin ice “pockets” are formed, representing a great danger. On the ice, which seems not strong enough, but there is no other way, they move crawling. In the spring, ice is most thin in areas overgrown with sedge and in flooded bushes.
Small taiga rivers are quite passable for light inflatable boats and rafts. In the center of the raft, you can build a small shelter (hut) from the rain and wind and prepare a place for a fire by pouring layers of sand or pebbles. To control the raft, two or three long poles are cut down. Anchor can serve as a heavy stone with a strong rope.
Swamps and bogs
The most insidious obstacles in the taiga are swamps and bogs. A characteristic feature of the marshland is its poor habitability, lack of roads, the presence of impassable, and sometimes completely impassable areas. Marshes are rarely equally passable throughout and at different times of the year. Their surface is very deceptive. The most difficult are the swamps, the distinctive features of which are the haze of the surface layer.
Small wetlands are easy to get around by stepping on the hummocks or rhizomes of shrubs, or fording, after feeling the sixth bottom. Once you are convinced that it is impossible to pass or bypass dangerous areas, you can sketch a few branches, criss-cross several poles, or tie a mat of reeds, grass,straw and on this prepared "bridge" to move to solid ground.
The greatest danger to humans is represented by lakes, overgrown with peat-vegetative cover. They often have deep shady reservoirs, pulled from above by floating plants and grass, and these “windows” are almost outwardly outlined. You can fail in them suddenly, if you ignore the precautions. Therefore, passing through an unfamiliar swamp, you should walk slowly, carefully, without making sudden movements, always have a pole with you and probe the soil ahead.
Having fallen into the swamp, no need to panic, make sudden movements. Carefully, leaning on the recumbent across the pole, take a horizontal position, then try to reach out with the hands of reeds, grass and, pulling up, crawl away from a dangerous place. If several people are moving around the swamp, one must keep closer to each other in order to be able to help a friend at any moment.
The thickness of the peat layer, its density and the hardness of the soil can be checked using a metal pin with a diameter of 20 mm and notches through 10 cm. To overcome the vast wetlands, bog access and other devices can be made from improvised means.
Cooking and making fire
Fire is needed for heating, drying clothes, alarms, cooking, water purification by boiling it. The survival time will increase or decrease depending on your ability to breed fire.
If there are matches, you can build a fire in any conditions and in any weather. If actions are expected in remote areas, stock up with a sufficient number of matches, which you should always keep with you in a waterproof package. It is necessary to learn how to keep the flame of a match as long as possible in case of a strong wind.
Fuel, tinder and campfire spotting
A small fire is easier to plant and control than a big one. A few small fires that are set up in the cold weather around you will give more heat than a big fire.
Identify and clearly limit the place of making fire to avoid a large forest fire. First of all, when you need to build a fire in wet soil or snow, build a platform of logs or stones. Protect the fire from the wind with a shield (windbreak) or a reflector that directs heat in the desired direction.
Use dried trees and branches as fuel.In wet weather, you will find dry fuel under the trunks of fallen trees. In areas with sparse vegetation, dry grasses, animal fats, and sometimes even coal, shale tar or peat, which can be on the soil surface, can be used as fuel.
If there are nearby debris of an airplane in an accident, use a mixture of gasoline and oil (oil) as fuel. Some plants can also be used, but by no means poisonous.
Use fire to make fire, for example, small bars of dry wood, fir cones, tree bark, twigs, palm leaves, dried spruce needles, grasses, lichens, ferns, spongy threads of a giant raincoat (mushroom), which also edible Before attempting to light a fire, prepare shavings from dry wood. One of the most convenient and best materials for breeding fire is the rottenness of dried trees or logs.
Rot can be found even in wet weather, clearing the moist upper layer of such a tree with a knife, sharp stick or even hands. Paper and gasoline come in handy as tinder.Even in the rain, the resin of spruce cones or dry stumps will quickly catch fire. Dry birch bark also contains resinous substances that quickly ignite. Lay these materials in the form of a wigwam (hut) or stacks of logs.
Keep the fire right. Use fresh logs or the end of a thick rotten log so that the fire burns slowly. Protect red lights from the wind. Cover them with ashes and above with a layer of soil. Thus, it will be easier for you to keep the fire going than to make it again.
In northern ice or in an area where other fuels are unavailable, animal fat should be used.
Fire a matchless match
Before you try to light a fire without matches, prepare some dry, flammable materials. Then cover them from wind and moisture. Good substances can be rot, scraps of clothing, rope or twine, dry palm leaves, wood chips and sawdust, bird feathers, woolly villi of plants and others. To stock them up for the future, set aside a part in a waterproof package.
"Sun and lens". The lens of the camera, the convex lens from the binoculars or telescope, finally,The mirror can be used to focus the sun's rays on highly flammable substances.
Flint and flint (steel plate). In the absence of matches, this is the best way to quickly burn a dry tinder. The flint can be the corresponding side of a waterproof matchbox or a solid piece of stone. Hold the flint as close to the tinder and strike them with the steel blade of the knife or with some small steel bar.
Strike so that sparks hit the center of the tinder. When he starts to smoke, lightly blow on the flame. You can add some fuel to the tinder, or you can transfer the tinder to the fuel. If you can not cut the spark with the first stone, try with the other.
Friction of a tree about a tree. Considering that getting the fire by the friction method is quite difficult, use it as a last resort.
Bow and drill. Make a spring bow, pulling it with a cord, rope or belt. Use it to roll a dry soft shaft in a small hole made in a dry, hard block of wood. As a result, get a powdery black dust, in which with further friction a spark will appear.Lift the block and spill this powder on a flammable substance (tinder).
Making a fire with a belt. To do this, use a thick strip of dry rattan (palm tree) about 1 to 4 inches thick and 2 steps long, and dry wood. Place it on the ground, cut it from one end and insert another pole so that the first one is held in a cut form. Insert a small lump of tinder into the cleavage and grab it with a strap, with which you begin to rub back and forth, while supporting the shaft at the same time.
Reception of fire by means of "saw". It consists of two pieces of dry wood, which they diligently rub one another. This method is mainly used in the jungle. For friction, use a cut piece of bamboo or other dry wood and a coconut flower shell as a wooden base. The brown fluff covering the bee palm and the dry material that you find at the base of the sheets of coconut can serve as a good tinder.
Ammunition and gunpowder. Prepare a pile of dry wood and other flammable material. Put powder at its base, poured out of several cartridges.Sprinkle a little powder on your chosen two stones. Hit them against each other closer to the base of the tinder. Powder and tinder will ignite from sparks.
Fire for cooking
A small fire and something like a stove - all that is required for cooking. Set the logs for fire crosswise to get a uniform layer of embers. Build a simple fixture of two logs, stones, or in the form of a narrow ditch, on which you could put kitchen utensils on fire. A large tin can from under canned food can serve as a mobile stove, especially in northern conditions.
The best temperature for cooking will provide a uniform layer of coal. For baking, the fire should be made in a hole.
Building fire under the ground, often practiced by Indians, requires one or more outlets to be drilled on the windward side. The vents play the same role as the exhaust pipe in the stove. This method of cooking has great advantages in ensuring safety in survival, as it significantly reduces the possibility of detecting smoke and fire. In addition, it neutralizes the negative effect of strong winds.
It is known that the human body is almost 65% water. Water is a component of tissues, without it the normal functioning of the body, the implementation of the metabolic process, the maintenance of heat balance, the removal of metabolic products, etc. are impossible. Dehydration of the body by only a few percent leads to disruption of its vital activity.
The lack of water during the day (especially in hot areas) already adversely affects the morale of the person, reduces his fighting ability, volitional qualities, causes fatigue.
The loss of large amounts of water by the body is dangerous to human life. In hot areas without water, a person can die in 5-7 days, and without food, if there is water, a person can live for a long time. Even in cold belts, a person needs about 1.5-2.5 liters of water per day to maintain normal working capacity.
If the amount of water that a person loses reaches 10% of body weight per day, a significant decrease in performance occurs, and if it increases to 25%, then this usually leads to death. However, even with a large loss of water, all disturbed processes in the body are quickly restored if the body is replenished with water to the norm.
Knowing the signs that indicate a lack of water in the human body, one can approximately determine the percentage of dehydration relative to body weight.
Signs indicating a lack of water in the human body:
1-5% - Thirst, poor health, slowing of movements, drowsiness, redness in some places of the skin, fever, nausea, upset stomach,
6-10% - Shortness of breath, headache, tingling in the legs and hands, lack of salivation, loss of ability to move and violation of speech logic,
11-20% - Delirium, muscle cramps, swelling of the tongue, dullness of hearing and vision, cooling of the body.
At an ambient air temperature of + 30 ° C, even 20-25% of dehydration is easier to transfer than dewatering at 10-15%, but at a higher air temperature.
It is allowed to set a rate of about 2.5 liters of water per day. In hot weather and with great physical exertion, the need for water increases significantly and reaches 4 liters per day. But not all regions of the world have natural sources of water (rivers, lakes, ponds) and not all of these sources can be used. You need to know how and where to find groundwater.
In conditions of autonomous existence, especially in areas with a hot climate, with limited water supplies or in their absence, the provision of water becomes a problem of paramount importance. It is necessary to find a water source, clean, if necessary, water from organic and inorganic impurities or desalinize it, if it contains a large amount of salts, to ensure its storage.
Natural sources can be divided into several groups: open water bodies (rivers, lakes, streams); groundwater bodies (keys, springs, accumulations of water in underground reservoirs); biological water sources (aquifer plants); atmospheric water (rain, snow, dew, desalinated ice).
In areas with a temperate and cold climate, finding water sources is not difficult. The abundance of open reservoirs, snow cover allows to timely satisfy the body's needs for water, to create the necessary water reserves for drinking and cooking.
Only in some cases it is necessary to use natural signposts to access the water source (animal-paved trails, usually leading to water, wet soil of the lowlands).It is much more difficult to provide oneself with water in the desert, where water sources are often hidden from the eyes and cannot be found without knowledge of the special features and features of the relief. They can indicate the nature of vegetation, plant indicators, artificial signs ("about"), etc.
Rainwater. To collect rainwater, dig a hole and lay it out with large leaves so that the collected water does not soak into the ground.
Dew. When it rains, tie a tree with a cloth. Water flowing along the trunk will linger and drip into the container placed below.
Water from the keys and springs of mountain and forest streams and streams can be drunk raw, but before quenching the thirst with water from standing or weakly flowing reservoirs, it is cleaned of impurities and disinfected.
Creating a supply of water during the transitions is advisable only in conditions where water sources are located at a great distance from each other. It is possible to store in any containers. But since in a hot tropical climate, water during storage quickly changes its taste, blooms, it is boiled during the halt.
With limited water supplies, especially in hot climates, where the body loses a lot of fluid with sweat, it becomes dehydrated, it is very important to reduce sweating.This can be achieved by protecting yourself from direct solar radiation with the help of a simple sun awning, limiting physical exertion in the hot time of the day, moisturizing clothes, etc.