How nuclear catastrophes are classified from us.

Friends, there appeared quite disturbing news about radiation - it turns out that in September, something really happened in the Urals, as I in this post. Yesterday Roshydromet finallyrecognizedthat at the end of September in the Urals some kind of emergency situation occurred, as a result of which a huge amount of ruthenium-106 radioisotope got into the atmosphere.
Earlier, Rosatom wrote that they say "inconsistent data", "the excess of the radioisotope is not recorded anywhere except St. Petersburg", but recent news refutes this - Roshydromet and Greenpeacepublished datathat the maximum concentration of ruthenium-106 was found just in the "Mayak" area - that is, they actually confirmed what I wrote 10 days ago. We can draw very bad conclusions from all this - we continue to hide the consequences of nuclear incidents from us, continuing the glorious Soviet traditions.
And in today's post I will tell you how the consequences of major nuclear accidents were hidden inTHE USSR,and we will think about what to do about it.
The disaster at Mayak in 1957
In 1957, in the Chelyabinsk Region of the RSFSR, a major nuclear accident occurred at the Mayak plant - one of the steel "cans" with highly active nuclear waste exploded, which was stored in a concrete storage facility by semi-handicraft. As a result of the explosion, the floor slab was destroyed, and the entire contents of the "can" was outside the storage area - the background reached 1000 roentgens at the edge of the fault. Most of the waste settled directly on the territory of "Mayak", about the rest of them formed a radioactive cloud, which in the process of "blowing off" on the wind rose left such radiation trace here:

Of course, no one said anything to the locals about this accident, everything was immediately classified. 23 points were resettled from the contaminated area, houses were destroyed, and cattle were killed. To eliminate the consequences of the accident, tens of thousands of people were involved -most of them didn’t even know what they were involved in, all information was secret.
Here is what local people and participants in the aftermath of the Mayak-1957 recalled:Nadezhda Kutepova, daughter of a liquidator, Ozersk:
My father was 17 years old and he studied at a technical school in Sverdlovsk (now Ekaterinburg). On September 30, 1957, he and his other fellow students were loaded directly from classes into trucks and brought to Mayak to eliminate the consequences of the accident. They were told nothing about the seriousness of the danger of radiation. They worked for days. They were given individual dosimeters, but they were punished for exceeding the dose, so many people left dosimeters in their clothes boxes in order not to go through the dose.
In 1983, he fell ill with cancer, he was operated on in Moscow, but he developed metastases throughout his body, and after 3 years he died. We were told then that it was not from the accident, but then this disease was officially recognized as a consequence of the Mayak accident. My grandmother also participated in the elimination of the accident and officially received a large dose. I never saw her because she died of cancer of the lymphatic system long before my birth, 8 years after the accident.
Gulshara IsmagilovaA resident of the village Tatarskaya Karabolka:
I was 9 years old and we went to school. Once we were gathered and told that we will harvest.It was strange to us that instead of harvesting, we were forced to bury it. And around were the police, they guarded us, so that no one ran away. In our class, most of the students then died of cancer, and those that remained are very sick, women suffer from infertility.
Natalya Smirnova, a resident of Ozersk:
I remember that then there was a terrible panic in the city. Cars drove through the streets and washed the roads. We were announced on the radio, so that we threw away everything that was in our house that day, and constantly washed the floor. Many people, workers of the Beacon, then got sick with acute radiation sickness, everyone was afraid to say something or ask under the threat of dismissal or even arrest.
P. Usaty:
In the closed zone of Chelyabinsk-40, I served as a soldier. On the third shift of service a fellow countryman from Yeisk fell ill, arrived from the service - he died. When transporting goods in the carriages, they stayed at the post for an hour until the nose goes blood (a sign of acute exposure - author's note) and the head will not ache. At the sites stood behind a 2-meter long lead wall, but even she did not save. And during demobilization, we were given a non-disclosure subscription. Of all those who were called upon us, three remained, all disabled.
Rizwan Khabibullin, A resident of the village of Tatar Karabolka:
September 29, 1957, we, the students of Karabolsk secondary school, harvested roots in the fields of the collective farm named after Zhdanova. Around 16:00, everyone heard the roar from somewhere in the west and felt a gust of wind. Towards evening on the field down a strange mist. We, of course, did not suspect anything and continued to work. Work continued in the following days. After a few days, for some reason, we were forced to destroy the roots that had not been exported yet by that time ...
By winter, I had terrible headaches. I remember how I rolled in exhaustion on the floor, like a hoop that tightened my temples, there was bleeding from my nose, I almost lost my sight.
Gulfira Khayatova, Resident of the village Muslumovo:
The first memory from childhood associated with the river (Leak) is the barbed wire. We saw the river through it and from the bridge, then still old, wooden. My parents tried not to let us into the river, without explaining why, apparently, they did not know anything. We loved to climb the bridge, admired the flowers that grew on a small island ... The water was clear and very clean. But parents said that "nuclear" river ...Parents rarely talked about the accident in 1957, and if they did, they spoke in a whisper.
Perhaps, for the first time consciously, I realized that with our river something was not right when I went with my mother to another village and saw another river. I was very surprised that that river without barbed wire, that you can approach it ...
In the 1960s and 1970s, ordinary locals did not know what “radiation sickness” was, they said that a person died from a “river disease”, which was often called leukemia. The consequences of the Mayak accident were classified, and the doctors made “neutral” diagnoses that were not related to radiation to people sick of the effects of radiation contamination.
Only in the eighties, in connection with the accident at Chernobyl, they started writing and telling about the accident at Mayak in the media.
How Chernobyl was classified.
On the night of April 26, 1986, the largest nuclear accident in the history of mankind occurred - as a result of dangerous experiments and the unsuccessful design of the RBMK-1000 reactor, an explosion occurred at the Fourth Unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, as a result of which the reactor was depressurized. Eyewitnesses told about two explosions, but later it turned out that the second explosion was hit by the fall of the multi-ton concrete cover of the reactor back into the mine - it fell sideways in the mouth of the reactor.
The first eyewitnesses to the incident were employees of Proskuryakov and Kudryavtsev station - they got into the dilapidated reactor hall along the flight of stairs and saw a terrible picture - fittings protruded from the dilapidated walls, water splashed from the automatic fire extinguishing systems, and from the mouth of the destroyed reactor, howling like in a chimney went blue and red fire with an activity of thirty thousand roentgens.
For the one and a half minutes spent at the ruins of the reactor, Proskuryakov and Kudryavtsev received lethal doses of radiation, but managed to tell what they saw in the reactor hall, that is, in fact, the real state of things was already known in the first hours after the accident. The subsequent helicopter overflights of the destroyed Fourth Block only confirmed this data - only ruins remained from the reactor hall, the reactor was completely destroyed, the fuel from the mine fell into the atmosphere.

Despite this, the authorities were in no hurry to talk about what really happened in Chernobyl - the information was completely secret in the first days and weeks. I highly recommend everyone to read the memoriesrusakkerman- he just at that time left Pripyat, where his relatives lived.The connection with the city was cut off, it was not clear what was happening: “All May newspapers sought to assure me that there was no city of Pripyat, but there was a small village not worth mentioning. The authorities asserted that everything was fine, that everything was under control. in the West, and everything will be fine, beautiful marquise. "
Only in May, after a series of reports in foreign media about the exceedances of radiation levels and that something obviously happened in the USSR at one of the nuclear power plants, the authorities reluctantly began to talk about Chernobyl with doses — first they talked about a “small accident”, gradually ( over the course of many months) recognizing that there was, in general, the largest nuclear catastrophe in the history of the Earth.
In 1989, Igor Kostin, the heroic photographer of Chernobyl (he filmed the ruins of the Fourth Block from a helicopter and visited the Sarcophagus three times) published such a document, dated June 1986, according to which all information about the accident was classified:

Why was it important to tell the whole truth about the accident in the early days? The fact is that the main radioactive background in the first weeks / months after the carastrophs gave so-called short-lived isotopes, including iodine-131, in large quantities ejected from the reactor.If already on April 27 (when it was precisely known that the reactor was opened), medical measures were taken (taking iodine preparations, and so on) - the victims of the Chernobyl tragedy would be much less.
What now?
And now, apparently, it's still sad. Almost ten days ago I wrotebig postabout the fact that at the Ural combine “Mayak” (yes, the very one at which it exploded in 1957) most likely something happened, and even gave a version of what could have happened there, read. And just yesterday Roshydromet confirmed the information that an “extreme radiation jump” had occurred somewhere in the Urals:

And what is most sad about the fact that something happened, we again learned from foreign media, which began to write en masse about a radioactive accident somewhere in the Urals, the authorities again did not tell. By the way, it is still unknown - what exactly happened and where this ruthenium-106 came from in the air, the situation turns out to be paradoxical - Greenpeace and Roshydromet say that the highest concentration of radioisotope was found in the "Mayak" area, and the "Mayakovtsy" claim that everything is good, although it was precisely they who could have provoked the release of ruthenium, this is what the French physicist, the atomic energy commissioner Jean-Claude Zerbib writes
“Ruthenium can be released during an incident on a vitrification furnace. When everything goes well, only krypton 85 gas is released from the chimney in the form of aerosols (RuO2 for ruthenium), which are largely trapped by“ very high efficiency ”(THE) filters that have The capture efficiency is 99.9%. They are checked and change regularly. But the chemistry of ruthenium is quite complex and there is a moment in which this element is in the volatile phase. If an incident occurs at this time, a leak may occur when gases and aerosols escape t apparatus.Since Mayak has been using this vitrification technology since 1987, it is possible that it was they who caused this accidental release.."
So it goes.
Write in the comments what you think about this and what to do about it.

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