How did the Soviet totalitarian regime differ from the Italian and German
The Latin word "totalitas" means completeness and integrity. Nothing that initially means nothing. But the concept of “totalitarian regime” in the public consciousness is perceived very negatively, and there are good reasons for this. Almost the entire twentieth century was the time when humanity gained the bitter experience of “universality” and collectivism, elevated to the rank of a fundamental state principle.
Totalitarianism in Fascist Italy
For the first time, the expression “totalitarian regime” was introduced by Benito Mussolini, the leader of the Italian fascist party. In his mouth it meant the rallying of the nation in the name of future prosperity. Mussolini used the ideas of the ideologist Gentile, who in his writings called for unity. Just as the rods tied together in a bundle (fascina) become a hundred times stronger, so the whole people of Italy should have become an indestructible and unified whole under the guidance of a strong leader. By that time, a totalitarian regime already existed in the USSR.The signs of it were the same - the dominant and unified ideology, the subordination of personal interests to the public, the power apparatus of suppressing discontent and effective state control of all processes in the country. However, there were differences, most important of which was the degree of socialization of the means of production. The totalitarian regime in Italy left inviolable private property, and this did not allow establishing complete domination over the masses.
Totalitarianism in Germany
Like Italian fascism, German national socialism had a racist ideology. The main enterprise Hitler nationalized, but the private sector remained the driving force of the national economy. The creation of a repressive apparatus took place on the basis of new ideas about power, but cadres of the police of the Weimar Republic were not exterminated so massively as the royal satraps in Soviet Russia. The first victims of the concentration camps were communists, social democrats and representatives of sexual minorities, then the turn of the Jews came. At the beginning, the totalitarian regime appealed to the majority of Germans, tired of poverty and disorder, sweeping the country after the First World War.Hitler quickly managed to cope with unemployment, he denounced the conditions of the Versailles Peace, and many thought that he was the leader who represented their interests.
The Soviet totalitarian regime in 1925 was much more effective than the Italian. When they talk about the Stalinist repression, then, as a rule, 1937 is mentioned. There is an explanation for this, it is quite logical. This mournful date with the seven, resembling an ax of the executioner, was remembered because then the serious problems began with the party apparatus, connected with its large-scale purge. This process can not be called the suppression of democracy, it already was not. Just I.V. Stalin led the country in such a way that it seemed to him right, and dealt with those who interfered with it, or was at least theoretically capable of it. Ideology wore a pronounced class character. Concentration camps in Soviet Russia were created during the years of the civil war, at the same time mass repressions began, which to varying degrees continued throughout the entire period of communist rule. Since the Soviet system did not suffer a military defeat,he gradually weakened, passing into the post-totalitarian phase, characterized by a forced decrease in the control of social life, which ultimately led to its complete collapse. The same end, obviously, awaits other totalitarian regimes that still exist on our planet.