Growing oyster mushrooms at home for beginners: step by step instructions

Oyster mushrooms are delicious mushrooms used to prepare both first and second courses, as well as preservatives. Their pulp contains nicotinic acid, almost all the B vitamins, iodine, iron and other substances useful to the human body. In the forests of oyster mushroom occurs quite often. But if you wish, of course, you can get a harvest of these wonderful mushrooms and independently, for example, in a country plot. Growing oyster mushrooms at home is relatively simple.

Choosing a landing site

In the first place for these mushrooms should, of course, find a suitable room. You can grow oyster mushrooms, for example, in the basement or cellar, in the garage, in the outhouse, in the extension. The main thing is that throughout the development of mycelium and fruit bodies, the air temperature in the room should be kept at +16 ... 20 ° С.

Oyster mushrooms on stumps

Hozbloki, unfortunately, are not available at all suburban areas. In the garage to grow oyster mushrooms is usually not very convenient. Even the fruiting bodies themselves in such a room can “collect” harmful substances. In the extension for these mushrooms it will be difficult to create the necessary level of humidity. Therefore, most often oyster mushrooms are planted in suburban areas in cellars or cellars.

What substrate can be grown on

In the wild, oyster mushrooms are harvested from stumps broken by wind or sawed trees. In the same way they are sometimes grown in suburban areas. Such technology is not considered too complicated among summer residents. However, it is unlikely that it will be possible to get large yields of mushrooms on stumps.

Most often, when growing oyster mushrooms at home, they use a special substrate. On the ground, these mushrooms, of course, will not grow. Oyster mushrooms are usually used for the following types of substrate:

  • sawdust;

  • straw;

  • husk sunflower seeds.

Straw before laying the mycelium should be cut short. Sawdust for growing oyster mushrooms can only be used on hardwood.

When to plant

If you wish, you can grow oyster mushrooms all year round.However, in the cellars of ordinary summer residents, the air temperature in winter usually decreases too much. Therefore, oyster mushrooms are grown by gardeners most often only in summer. In this case, the mushrooms are best planted in April or May.

Mushroom cultivation

How to make a substrate

Even for beginners, growing oyster mushrooms will not be too complicated. The main thing is to properly prepare the substrate for mushrooms. Sometimes oyster mushrooms are grown just on straw bales. In this case:

  • bales are set vertically in a warm room;

  • pour water over the straw;

  • bale nests;

  • lay in the nest of the mycelium;

  • they cover the nests with straw plugs.

This technology is simple, but to get too big a crop of mushrooms when using it will not work. In order to increase the yield of oyster mushrooms, the substrate should be prepared using special stimulants and bio-additives. Also, to reduce the acidity of the nutrient mass, lime, chalk or gypsum should be added to it.

The technology for preparing the substrate for growing oyster mushrooms in this case will look like this:

  • straw crushed;

  • boil water;

  • wait until the water has cooled to 70 ° C and add bio-additives and lime (1-2%) in it;

  • pour water into a large container;

  • straw impose in a fabric bag;

  • put the bag in a container with water;

  • after 3 hours take out the bag;

  • allowed to drain for 8-10 hours

You can plant oyster mushrooms and just on the straw or sawdust, and you can prepare a mixed substrate. In this case it will consist of the following components:

  • 40% of sawdust;

  • 58% wheat or rice straw;

  • 1% hydrated lime;

  • 1% gypsum.

Or:

  • 75% of sawdust;

  • 20% wheat straw;

  • 3% cereal or legumes;

  • 1% hydrated lime;

  • 1% gypsum.

The use of mixtures prepared in this way allows to increase the yield of oyster mushrooms by about 25-30%.

Oyster fruit bodies

As soon as the soaked disinfected substrate, no matter how it is prepared, cools to a temperature of 20-26 ° C, it is possible to start planting the mycelium. Cooling the nutrient mixture is a prerequisite for growing oyster mushrooms. In the hot substrate mycelium will simply die. The finished mixture should be wet, but not sticky. Well suited substrate for sowing crumbles in the hands.

Where to get mycelium and how to store it

Gardeners of oyster mushrooms gardeners usually buy in special stores or farms involved in the cultivation of these mushrooms. If desired, the mycelium can also be written out via the Internet. In any case, the purchase of a mushroom oyster mushroom is not likely to be too expensive. It is not particularly expensive mycelium.

Store acquired mycelium at home until seeding, of course, you need to properly. It is believed that:

  • until the day mycelium is best stored at a temperature of 20-24 ° C;

  • up to 3 days - 15-18 ° C;

  • up to 2 weeks - 0-2 ° C;

  • up to a month - -2-0 ° С.

Sowing

In addition to the substrate and mycelium, for growing oyster mushrooms at home will need to prepare new plastic bags. It is best if they have a size of 350-750 mm. Actually the seeding itself is carried out using this technology:

  • at the bottom of the bag is poured the substrate with a thickness of 7-8 mm and compacted;

  • mycelium is applied on top of the substrate, which should be crushed;

  • again the substrate is poured in a layer of 15 cm and compacted;

  • the layers alternate until the bag is full.

Mycelium for planting oyster mushrooms should be used 180-200 g per 7-8 kg of substrate (2.5 buckets).All layers need to be tamped. As soon as the bag is filled, it should be tied up and made holes in its sides and bottom for airing and outflow of excess water.

Incubation period

It is best to immediately transfer bags with mycelium and substrate to the basement and hang them on ropes at a distance of 15-30 cm from each other. Of course, the conditions for growing oyster mushrooms must be respected exactly. The temperature of the air in the room must be maintained at a subsequent level of 16-20 ° C.

Mycelium oyster

Approximately 2 days after seeding, the bags with mycelium should be examined. If white spots are visible in the holes on the substrate, it means that the mycelium develops normally. During the incubation period, the air temperature in the room should not exceed 20-22 grams. At this time, various chemical processes will take place in the substrate, as a result of which it will start to warm slightly. In any case, the temperature in the bags should not rise above 26 ° C. Otherwise, the growth of oyster mushrooms in bags can fail. To reduce the temperature of the mass in the bags, if necessary, by ventilation of the room.

Fruiting

In about a week, the substrate will acquire a light brown color. After another 7 days, it will turn into a white dense block. From this moment you can start to expect the appearance of mushrooms. In order for them to germinate, vertical cuts should be made in the bags on the sides. Their width should be about 2-3 cm, length - 7 cm.

Sprouting on the substrate mushrooms begin about 16 days after planting. Sometimes it happens before. In any case, during this period it is also necessary to observe the conditions for growing oyster mushrooms. So, for example, during fruiting, the humidity in the room should be maintained at no more than and no less than 55-65%. In the cellars and basements, the air is usually not too dry, either. If necessary, in order to increase the humidity, the floor in these rooms can, for example, be watered daily with water.

Also during the fruiting of the basement or the cellar should be well lit. At 15 m2the area of ​​the premises for the successful cultivation of oyster mushrooms at home in bags should use at least 2-3 incandescent bulbs per 100 watts. Also, when fruiting is to ensure the ventilation of the basement. Otherwise, the mushrooms at the initial stages of development may die due to mold.

Harvesting

Under all conditions of growing oyster mushrooms in bags, the yields of these mushrooms can be obtained significant. The mycelium tab alone provides usually three waves of fruiting. In this case, the most fruitful is the first. The second time the mushrooms will grow less (approximately 70% of the first collection). The third fruiting is usually very scarce. Remove grown oyster mushrooms from bags relies simultaneously. After the third wave, the bags with the substrate, if desired, grow mushrooms, and further, you will need to change. It is the purchase of all the necessary components for the creation of the nutrient mass and in most cases forms the basis of the expenses of people involved in oyster mushrooms.

In the forest, mushrooms are known to be cut with a knife. When growing oyster mushrooms at home, usually use a different method of harvesting. The remains of the legs when cut in blocks will begin to mold and infect the substrate with mycelium. And this, of course, will have a negative impact on subsequent harvests.

Substrate for growing oyster mushrooms

The technology of removal of home-grown oyster mushrooms looks like, therefore, as follows:

  • a mushroom or a group of mushrooms take fingers for the legs below;

  • grab fruit palm and unscrew from the block along with a small part of the straw;

  • pulling mushrooms towards themselves;

  • cut off part of the legs with straw;

  • the nest formed is covered with straw.

Store and transport oyster mushrooms should be as careful as possible. These mushrooms, unfortunately, are fragile.

With regard to the size of the caps, the oyster mushrooms being removed, it is impossible to give exact recommendations. It all depends on this particular cultivated variety. Ordinary oyster mushrooms are most often cut with a cap diameter of 4-7 cm. The royal ones grow somewhat larger.

How to grow oyster mushrooms in the apartment

In the basement or cellar to get a big harvest of these mushrooms, thus, it is not too difficult. But if you wish, you can grow oyster mushrooms even in a city apartment. Of course, too many mushrooms in this case can not be obtained. But the process of growing a citizen is likely to take a lot of pleasure.

It is best to grow oyster mushrooms in an apartment, of course, not in blocks of straw or sawdust. In this case, usually, special purchased mushroom beds, which are plastic bags with a ready-made substrate, are used in this case.

Even for beginners, the cultivation of oyster mushrooms at home with the use of such blanks is not difficult. When using special purchased beds to harvest these mushrooms, proceed as follows:

  • pull out the bags with the substrate from the box;

  • open them;

  • pour water into some container;

  • poured into the water mineral supplement, complete with beds;

  • carefully pour the water on the sides of the mushroom beds;

  • close the bed using gum;

  • pour water into a large saucepan and put it on the stove;

  • mushroom beds are immersed in a pot;

  • fix the lid of the pan to the handles with wire;

  • boil the beds for 90 minutes;

  • take them out of the pan.

How to make a mycelium

Next, leave the beds to cool at room temperature. Sowing mycelium produced as follows:

  • put on hands medical rubber gloves;

  • open the bag;

  • make a deep well in the center of the substrate;

  • knead the bundle with beds of mycelium;

  • take the mycelium pieces and push it to the fingers in the central channel of the bed;

  • push the following pieces.

This is done until the layer of mycelium reaches the bottom of the bag.Then again close the garden with a rubber band. At the final stage, the bags with mycelium are put back into the box, the valves marked by the manufacturer are opened in it and the bags are cut through them crosswise.

How to grow on stump

Such technology by summer residents, as already mentioned, is also used quite often. To grow oyster mushrooms on hemp will not be difficult. Chumps in this case are suitable only from soft hardwood trees, for example, birch.

In each stump you first need to make a notch. Further in the formed nests lay mycelium. To make the mushrooms grow faster, the stumps are wrapped with plastic wrap.

Growing oyster mushrooms at home from scratch: how to make a mycelium

The oyster mushroom spawn, as already mentioned, is relatively inexpensive. However, if you wish, you can save money and not buy mycelium, but make it yourself. To prepare the mycelium in this case, you will need:

  • oyster mushrooms;

  • the neck of a plastic bottle 1.5 l;

  • insulating tape;

  • chalk - 10 g;

  • gypsum - 30 g;

  • alcohol;

  • plastic bags;

  • pan;

  • winter whole wheat - 1 kg.

For growing mycelium, the pan is filled almost completely with grain.Then water is poured into it in such a way that it covers about 1.5-2 cm of wheat. They put the pan on the fire and boil the grain after boiling for 5 minutes.

Before planting the mycelium, the wheat is cooled to room temperature. So that the mycelium subsequently does not become infected with mold, wipe the bowl with alcohol and pour a small part of the grain into it. Powdered wheat gypsum and chalk. Put the grain in the bowl again. Again it is sprinkled with chalk and plaster. Thus, all wheat and mineral supplements are consumed.

At the next stage, rub hands with alcohol and thoroughly mix the grain with plaster and chalk. Add to the mixture pieces of oyster mushroom. Then pour the grain with mushrooms in a plastic bag.

In order not to infect the workpiece with mold, process the neck of the bottle with alcohol and clog a hole with a thread with cotton wool (not too tight). Vata is also pre-moistened with alcohol. Install the neck in the bag (wide up, like a funnel) and tie it with tape. This procedure is necessary so that the mycelium can breathe.

Put the package in a dark place, for example, in a closet in a room with an air temperature of 22-25 ° C.Ready mycelium, suitable for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, will be about two weeks.

Oyster mushrooms in nature

The method described above for making a mycelium is the simplest. In some cases, it may fail. Mycelium with a certain probability may simply become moldy. Those summer residents who do not want to take the risk should use more sophisticated technologies, for example, with preliminary disinfection of the substrate with liquid nitrogen.

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