Ethnic composition of the population of Russia. Peoples of Russia
Today Russia ranks firstin the world in terms of the area of the territory. However, this does not mean that the population of the Russian Federation in terms of number is also in the leading positions among other countries. The fact is that a considerable part of the territory is occupied by uninhabited steppes and taiga, as the most remote regions of Siberia. Therefore, in terms of population density, Russia is far from being the first in the world.
Indicators of RF population
According to the first large-scale census in 1897,the population of Russia was more than 67.4 million people. They were people of different nationalities and races. The predominantly rural inhabitants. The reason for this was the developed farming industry and agriculture. In addition, as such large cities were few. Lived in them mostly craftsmen and merchants.
The level of literacy in the early 20th century wasis catastrophically low. Only 21% of people went through at least primary school. According to the religion, the population statistics show that the majority of Russians at that time were Orthodox (about 70%). The rest belonged to such denominations as Islam, Catholicism and Judaism. Interestingly, three-quarters of the population was represented by peasants. The number of townspeople was about 10.7%, foreigners - up to 6.6%, Cossacks - slightly more than 2%, nobles - 1.5%, etc.
In the mid-1920s, the dynamics of the population of Russia becamewear a consistently positive character. Thus, in 1926 the country's population was about 101 million people. At the beginning of the Second World War, the number of Russian residents exceeded 110 million, for the end of hostilities - about 97.5 million. This is the only significant decline in the demographic indicators of the country in the history of the Russian Federation. And only after 10 years the situation has stabilized. By 1955 the number of the population of Russia again reached the level of 110 million people.The country was waiting for its demographic peak1995. Then the number was about 148.5 million people. In the next 15 years there was a slight decline in indicators due to the massive emigration of indigenous people to Western countries. More than 6 million people left Russia during this period.
To date, the population of the Russian Federation is equal to 146.3 million people.
The geography of the Russian population is very diverse anduneven in the subjects. Most of the residents are concentrated in the territorial triangle between St. Petersburg, Irkutsk and Sochi. The reasons are a favorable climate and a positive economic background. North of this region is dominated by permafrost, and to the south - endless deserts.
Population density is one of the most recentplaces in the world is Siberia. Less than 29 million people live in this region. This is only a fifth of the total population of Russia. And the area of Siberia is three quarters of Russia. The most densely populated points are the bands of Derbent-Sochi and Ufa-Moscow.
In the Far East, a high density is observedthroughout the Trans-Siberian route. These are cities such as Omsk, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Vladivostok, Krasnoyarsk, Khabarovsk, etc. Increased indicators of population density are noted in the area of the Blacksmith's coal basin. All these regions attract residents with their economic advantages.
As the statistics of the population of the Russian Federation show,The greatest demographic number is reflected in megacities and capitals of autonomous republics. It is noteworthy that rural areas are increasingly empty every year because of the move of local residents to large cities.
Modern Russia is a territory, a populationwhich is growing mainly due to a significant influx of migrants from neighboring countries in search of prosperity. The fact is that in Russia at the moment there is a demographic crisis. The birth rate barely exceeds 1.5. In parallel, a catastrophically high mortality rate is observed. Several factors make up the reason for this. According to statistics, more than half of deaths occur due to heart disease, about 15% - from cancer and its consequences, more than 4% - from the defeat of internal organs.
It is worth noting that Russia occupies one of thethe first places in the world by the number of deaths due to external causes (more than 14.5%). This is 6 times higher than in other European countries. Most of the deaths occur as a result of accidents, including in the workplace. Annually about 6 thousand people become victims of murder. The mortality rate of underage Russians rests at 5% of the total.
In 2006, the country was born about 1.5million children. The corresponding coefficient rose to 10.4 points. Nevertheless, the death rate was more than 2.1 million people. Together with the migration indicators, the population of the Russian Federation has decreased by almost 0.7 million. In the same year, there was a slight positive dynamics in life expectancy, which was 66.8 years. And yet this is a fairly low figure compared to other top European countries.
In 2007 the structure of the population of Russia underwentimportant changes. As a result of mass migration, the country was replenished by more than a quarter of a million people from different parts of the world. This made it possible to reduce the demographic gap in Russia. It is interesting that the highest fertility rates were first recorded in the Magadan Region.
In 2008 and 2009 migration growth compensated for more than 70% of the society's numerical losses from mortality rates. The birth rate exceeded the threshold of 1.7 million children, reaching a coefficient of 12.3. This positive trend was observed in 67 subjects of the country. In parallel with this, the overall life expectancy in the regions gradually increased.
In 2012, the mortality and fertility ratesexpected to be equaled at around 1.9 million people. At the same time, the increase in migrants reached the threshold of 300 thousand. In 2013, the birth rate prevailed over the death rate: 1.9 compared to 1.87 million people. A natural increase in the population was noted in 43 regions of the federation.
In 2014, the birth rate exceeded the death rate by 33.7 thousand people. Taking into account the Crimea, the population was 143.7 million people.
Commitment to urbanization
Over the last century, the rural population of Russiadecreased by 4 times. By 1914 in the outskirts and villages lived 82.5% of people, by 2014 - less than 26%. Today, the main population of Russia is residents of large and small cities.
The main reason for this increase wasplanned economic policy of the Soviet Union. For the period from 1929 to 1939. In the rural areas there was a rapid collectivization and industrialization of society. In the early stages of the reform, the country was shaken by a terrible famine, but subsequently in the entire territory of the USSR there was a significant growth in the industrial sector. In the late 1940s, the rural part of the population gradually moved to the cities to find a better life.
The decline in the rate of urbanization was noted inmid-1960s, and also in the 1980s. For a long time this indicator was no more than 1.5%. Already at that time the urban population was at around 74% of the total country. Over the years to this day, the situation has not changed. The percentage of urbanization in Russia is equal to 74.2%. This is about 106.7 million people. When in rural areas the number barely exceeds 39 million people.Most of the population is represented in themegacities. At the moment there are 15 cities with more than 1 million inhabitants. The list is headed by Moscow (12.1 million people), followed by St. Petersburg (5.1 million people). In cities such as Novosibirsk, Kazan, Yekaterinburg, Samara, Omsk, Perm, Novgorod, Ufa, Chelyabinsk, Voronezh, Krasnoyarsk, Rostov and Volgograd, population numbers range from 1 to 1.5 million people.
The diversity of peoples
Today, the ethnic and religious make-up of Russiaincludes hundreds of nations and is fully reflected in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. About 200 peoples live on the territory of the country. Each of them has its own culture, traditions and religious views.
The main ethnic people of Russia are Russians. According to the results of the large-scale census in 2010, this nation occupies almost 81% of the total population of the country. It is more than 111 million people. All other nationalities are included in the remaining 19.1%. It is noteworthy that every year the number of Russians in the Russian Federation is inexorably falling. Over the past 12 years, the number of this ethnic group has decreased by almost 5 million people. In turn, there is a significant increase in the number of migrants from Asia during the reporting period.
Over the past 10 years, Russia has been the mostmoved Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Circassians and Kumyks. Growth of the first and did more than 22.5%. In parallel with this, there is a significant decline in some European nations. This list includes such people as Finns, Poles, Ukrainians, Karelians and Belarusians. The largest negative percentage belongs to the first (-40.5%).
The largest nations (more than 1million people) are Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvashes, Chechens and Armenians. Each of these ethnic groups is considered the main element of the foundation of Russian society.
The indigenous population is Russian
This ethnic nation of Russia is aEastern Slavs who lived in the territory of Russia from time immemorial. Most of the Russian population is in the Russian Federation, but large diasporas are also observed in Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Belarus and the US. This is the largest European ethnic group. At the moment there are more than 133 million Russians on the planet. The overwhelming majority of them profess Orthodoxy.
On the territory of Russia there are more than 111millions of Russians. They are concentrated in all the subjects of the country, from cities to villages. To date, the Russian people as a community of the nation is about 77.7% of the total population of the Russian Federation. Most of the representatives of the ethnic group live in Moscow - about 9.9 million people. A little more than 6.2 million Russians are in the region adjoining the capital. The next largest regions are the Krasnodar Territory, St. Petersburg, Rostov and Sverdlovsk regions. There are a total of about 16 million Russians.
It is noteworthy that in this national groupa number of ethnographic subclasses are singled out. In Karelia, a Russian person is called a water - ice or zaonezhan, on the coast of the Barents Sea - a pomor, in the Komi Republic - a cyst. All these are names of ancient peoples who lived in Russia earlier. Interestingly, there are Russian names from the central part of the country. For example: Katskari, odnodvortsy, polekh, Meshcheryaki, Sayans, Tsukans, Sevryuki, Tudovlyans, Talagai, etc. In the Caucasus and in the Asian region of the country such subclasses as Don Cossacks, Molokans, Kamchadals, Kerzhaks, Siberians, Masons, and others.
Separately it is necessary to note mixed groups, for example, the Russian Jew. However, there is no such division in official scientific works.
The Tatar people
The ethnic composition of the population of Russia by 3.7%is determined by representatives of the Turkic-speaking tribes. Tatars live mainly in the Volga region, Siberia, the Urals and in the Asian region of the country. Recently, a significant number is recorded in the Far East. In total, more than 5.3 million Tatars live on the territory of Russia. This is the second largest ethnic group in Russia.
Tatars are divided into 3 mainterritorial groups: the Volga-Ural, Astrakhan and Siberian. Most of the representatives of the people live in the Republic of Tatarstan (more than 2.8 million people). It is interesting that the national language belongs to the Altai class, and there can be several dialects: Kazan, Mishar and Siberian.
Most of the Tatars are Sunni Muslims. In rare cases, atheism and Orthodoxy profess. The Tatar nationality is partly included in some of the largest sub-ethnoses: Kazanl, Mishary, Priurals, Kasimov, Siberians, Teptyar, Kryashen, etc. Less significant subgroups: stickers and nagaibaki. It is interesting that the latter are Orthodox Christians.
The ethnic population of Russia by 1.35% consists ofWest Slavic diaspora. Considerable representatives of the nation consider Rusyns and Little Russians. Today this ethnic group is called Ukrainians. After the Russians and Poles, this is the most numerous Slavic people in the world. Mostly reside in Ukraine, but a significant part is in Russia and North America.
Historians refer to suchethnographic subgroups, like flyovers, strikers, Lemkis and Hutsuls. Most of them inhabited the western regions of Russia. At present, they are all united into one people. In Russia there are more than 1.9 million Ukrainians. Of these, almost 160,000 live in the Tyumen region, 154,000 live in Moscow, slightly less than 120,000 in the regional part of the capital. The following regions by the number of the Ukrainian people - the Krasnodar Territory, St. Petersburg, Rostov, Omsk, Orenburg, Primorye, etc.It is noteworthy that the ethnic territory of the nation is considered to be the second largest in Europe after the Russian. Historically, it covers more than 600 thousand square kilometers.
This Turkic-speaking people inhabited the territory of Russiafrom the Middle Ages. Bashkirs mostly live in Russia. Their cultural and historical center is the Republic of Bashkortostan. All the indigenous people speak Turko-Altaic dialect.
These ethnic minorities in Russia constituteabout 1.1% of the total population. Their number is slightly less than 1.6 million. The overwhelming majority of the Bashkirs live in their native republic (74%). More than 160 thousand are located in the Chelyabinsk region. Also, an increased number of Bashkirs is celebrated in Tyumen, Orenburg, Perm and Sverdlov.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, all national writingwas Arabic, then it was translated into Latin and Cyrillic. Since ancient times Bashkirs are adherents of the Sunni course of Islam. Cattle breeding is still considered the main occupation of the population. On the other hand, in recent years, the development of agriculture, poultry farming and fishing has been noted in Bashkortostan. The male part of the population often engages in hunting. Women, in turn, bred whole bee plantations.
From crafts well developed weaving, embroidery,production of carpets, leather finishing. Today, a significant part of the Republic's profit depends on the metallurgical industry. It is worth noting that this kind of activity the Bashkirs were famous in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Over the years, the lifestyle of local residents has changed dramatically. Nevertheless, there are still settlements where the semi-nomadic way is preserved.
Self-proclaimed Chuvash people
The ethnic composition of the Russian population includesthemselves not only listed, but also many other nationalities. According to the latest census, there are about 1.5 million Chuvashes in the country. Outside of Russia there are only about 50 thousand indigenous representatives of nationality. Most of the population is based in Chuvashia.To date, 4 territorialsubgroup. In the west of the Republic there are tourists, in the north - enchi, in the south - anatri, in the eastern steppes - hirts. The national language is Chuvash. It is a mixture of Turkic and Bulgarian. Can have several dialects depending on geographical commitment.
The main religion is Orthodoxy. An insignificant part of the population adheres to Islam. In the east of the Republic there were small villages, in which the only religion is ancient shamanism. All Chuvash people very much respect their traditions and customs, national holidays.
The main economic sector of the region remainsanimal husbandry. In the republic, pigs, sheep, cattle, large birds are grown. In the southern regions, the historical traditions of horse breeding have been preserved. Chuvashia is rich in meat and dairy products. Local products are exported far beyond the Republic. In total, agriculture employs more than 20% of the Chuvashes.
Charisma and traditions of Chechens
Initially, this people was called nokhchy. Today, the ethnic composition of the population of Russia is represented by 1% of the descendants of the ancient upland tribes - the Chechens. The overwhelming majority of the indigenous people are based in the North Caucasus. In the Middle Ages nookies were inhabited by such historical regions of Dagestan as Khasavyurtovskaya, Kazbekovskaya, Kizilyurtovskaya, Novolakskaya and others. The total number of the nation's representatives is 1.55 million people, in Russia it is 1.4 million.
Before the 1917 revolution, the Chechens called the Nakhpeoples. They included Ingush, Batsbi and Kistinians. Today, 84.5% of the ethnic group live in Chechnya, the rest in Dagestan and Ingushetia. In Moscow, there are about 14.5 thousand descendants nokhchy. This is just over 1% of their total.
Many historians believe that the Chechen nationwas formed as a result of the internal consolidation of the Vainakh people in the period from the 16th to the 18th centuries. At this time there was an active Islamization of the region. Most Vainakhs began to master mountainous areas. Gradually formed the religious and cultural background of modern Chechens. At the moment, it is impossible to determine definitively all the ethnic factors of the Vainakhs.
The Armenian Diaspora
It is one of the most ancient peoples belonging toto the Indo-European family. There are a lot of Armenians in the world of Armenians, but they are unevenly settled, so it is difficult to even figure out the total number theoretically. Most of them are in Armenia, the Karabakh Republic, Georgia, Lebanon, Abkhazia, Jordan and Russia.These ethnic minorities in Russia constituteabout 0.8% of the population. It is almost 1.2 million people. On the territory of Russia, Armenians are the most in Krasnodar and Stavropol Krai, in Moscow and the region, and also in Rostov. In cities, representatives of this ethnic group live about 98%.
The bearers of the Proto-Armenian dialect were the peoplesbrigs and luvians. In the modern sense, the national language of Armenians is considered the historical heritage of the ancient tribes of the highlands. There is practically no native culture of the diaspora. In the first millennium BC. e. Armenians moved to the territory of the Luvians and Hurrites, borrowing their customs. Nevertheless, some scholars agree that the ancestors of this ethnic group were migrating ancient Greeks.
At the present time, the ethnic composition of the populationRussia is diluted not only by representatives of the Turks and Nagorno-Karabakh, but also by many other diasporas. For example, the Avars are a people whose members include such ancient tribes as the Andians, Archi and the cesium. Their number in Russia is more than 0.9 million people.
It should be noted and such ethnogroups as the Kazakhs,Mordvinians, Dargins, Azeris, Mari, Udmurts, Ossetians, Byelorussians, Kumyks, etc. Their total share of the total population of Russia is about 3.7%. The ethnic composition of the Russian Federation also includes the Kabardins, Yakuts, Buryats, Moldovans, Uzbeks, Komi, Gypsies, Kirghiz, Circassians and hundreds of other peoples.
Jews in the country remained not so much, as inearly 2000's. Their number is 156.8 thousand people. It is interesting that during the last census many representatives of this ethnogroup noted in the graph the nationality "Russian Jew".