Destroyer of the "Leader" type: characteristic
The construction and maintenance of the navy is a matterexpensive. Apparently, therefore, the Russian Navy for a long time was financed in insufficient volume. For more than two decades, new ships have almost never descended to water, and the Soviet "legacy" was too often sent to scrap metal or sold for pennies for pennies. But now it is the turn to strengthen the defense, money has appeared on it, and the foreign policy situation clearly indicates the need for such a measure. Not so long ago in the press there was information that in the twenties (rather, to the middle), a new destroyer would be welcome. A leader or an outsider? This question can be answered only by analyzing the rather meager information that is available at the moment. There are not many of them, but they are. The ambitiousness of the project is indicated by its name. Meet the destroyer of the type "Leader".
Current state of the fleet
Ships serve for a long time, but not infinitely. They become obsolete morally and wear out physically under the onslaught of ocean waves and metal fatigue. The bearings are worn out, electrical equipment, powerful engines are out of order, no matter how carefully they are not courted, they are developing their own motor resource. After a decade of long-range warships, Russia will have few, few units. Projects 956 ("Modern"), 1155 ("Udaloy") and 1164 ("Moscow") will serve their own. There will remain "Peter the Great", "Admiral Nakhimov" and "Admiral Kuznetsov" (aircraft carrier), but without the accompanying squadron their application seems problematic and even adventurous. Of course, the submarine missile carriers can perform the task of combat patrolling, but the specificity of their service is secrecy, and it is impossible to entrust them with the notorious "demonstration of the flag", for known reasons. In such a situation, the construction of a promising destroyer of the "Leader" type is an important task.
What happens in the US?
After the collapse of the USSR, the development of Americanarmed forces was accompanied by some imbalances associated with euphoria about the withdrawal from the scene of the main likely enemy. As a result, the backlog (which arose somehow unexpectedly) in the field of strategic strike forces, but the Navy in the United States still paid much attention. The budget of the Pentagon is huge, it exceeds the amount of financing of the Armed Forces of any other country (Russia for example), and the American leadership does not regret the long-term and large-scale projects of money. The launch of the "destroyer of the XXI century", such as "Zamvolt", marked an increase in the global claims of the United States. This ship is built taking into account all modern and prospective requirements, it is barely visible to radars and has very powerful armament. Will a Russian destroyer of the "Leader" type resist this power? What advantages will it have as a more modern one?
However, and reassess the dignity of the Americandestroyers would be somewhat premature. "Zamvolt" was too expensive even for the US hypergigant military budget. In addition, there are many examples of inefficient spending by the Pentagon. The newest supereismic meets all the requirements for American technology: it is big, intimidatingly angular, it costs a lot of money, but it's very difficult to talk about its effectiveness in the real sea theater of military operations.
Why a destroyer?
So far, when classifying ships,their tonnage. However, the data of the American "Zamvolta" testify to the shift of concepts in the direction of enlargement. The displacement of the destroyer of the new generation of the "Leader" type also corresponds to the class of the missile cruiser (approximately 11-12 thousand tons). Such weighting is caused by several factors, including the increased operational radius (long-distance ships are not small), an abundance of electronic equipment and antenna systems, as well as features of the power plant. Why was he called a destroyer, not a cruiser? The point is in the ideological concept itself. The purpose of the "Leader" is to combat coastal resistance centers (during landing) and enemy ships of different classes, as well as with air and underwater targets. This universality is typical for destroyers.
The outline design of the destroyer of the "Leader" type (namely,this stage is now located) provides for the possibility of equipping the ship with a nuclear or gas turbine engine. The advantages of an atomic power plant are obvious: it provides an almost unlimited range of navigation, high autonomy and, oddly enough, greater economy, expressed in lower operating and logistical costs (there is no need to deliver fuel oil to remote points of the world's oceans). The advantage of a conventional gas-turbine plant is its relative cheapness. Which of the concepts will prevail is not yet clear, but it is possible that a new destroyer of the "Leader" type will be released in two versions, depending on the points of basing. Ships of the Northern and Pacific fleets, apparently, will require greater autonomy, and on the Black Sea enough gas turbine power plant.
Technical data of a modern warship,as a rule, are not disclosed, and since we are only talking about his project, even more so. However, some characteristics of the destroyer of the "Leader" type are still known. In addition to the estimated displacement of 12 thousand tons, based on the available information, it can be assumed that the speed in the atomic design will be stable 30 knots, and with the gas turbine plant - slightly less. There is no doubt that the most advanced achievements in the field of stealth will be taken into account in the design and construction, and therefore it is necessary to expect the angularity of the ship's silhouette, as evidenced by the published photographs of sketch mock-ups. However, it does not look like an iron, the contours will retain the elegance typical for the ships of the Russian Navy.
The modernity of the ship is determined in the firstturn the capabilities of its combat information management system. What it will have in the future destroyer of the "Leader" type is unknown, and in the coming decades this gap in knowledge is unlikely to be filled. Navigation equipment and guidance equipment are constantly being improved, and as the ship is being laid in the next year, the predicted progress of electronic technology allows to assume that it will be completely different than it is now. As for active systems for suppressing enemy communications and control, today's successes of Russian design bureaux allow us to hope for the most impressive indicators of its effectiveness.
Missile and artillery systems are also changing,and very quickly, but if we rely on the modern level of Russian technology, we can assume that the destroyer of the "Leader" type will be equipped with high-precision long-range cruise missiles "Caliber" and supersonic "Onyx". At the moment, the missile anti-aircraft anti-missile system S-500 is in the development stage, and it is likely to find its place in the defensive complex of the ship. The artillery will probably be represented by a twin 152 mm installation (such as the "Coalition"). Of course, the destroyer will not do without torpedoes. Air wing - two helicopters. And what will happen yet is not known to the general public.
Difficulties and prospects
Complications in Russian-Ukrainian relationsmade adjustments to the design of this ship. Instead of the Nicholas turbines, the production of which was supposed to be placed at the Zorya-Mashproekt plant, the Rybinsk engines will have to be put up (the technology of their manufacture has yet to be mastered). The cost of each destroyer is estimated at about two billion dollars at comparable prices. While it is planned to build six units. That, in fact, and all that is known about the destroyer of the type "Leader". One thing is certain: it will certainly go into service with the Russian Navy.