Causes of reduced thyroid function. Thyroid dysfunction

The thyroid gland plays an important role in the human body. Its functioning determines the state of immunity. It is a barrier shield that takes strikes on itself, both in the external environment and on the part of the organism itself. Normal functioning of the thyroid gland promotes proper metabolism. And this means that there is enough energy in the human body, it is young, has a clear and lively mind, has a healthy heart, the work of all its organs is flawless.

Thyroid structure

This organ is located in the larynx area in front of the trachea and consists of two lobes, which are located on both its sides. Between themselves, they are connected by an isthmus in the shape of a butterfly. The weight of the thyroid gland is 20 grams. Despite its small size, it does a great job.

Thyroid function

But if the functions of the thyroid gland are impaired, the efficiency of other human organs decreases. The gland tissue contains many small vesicles, which are also called follicles. They accumulate iodine, which later on with water and food enters the human body. Each organ lobe has a parathyroid gland behind it.

Hormone functions

The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ. Its main task is to produce and provide the human body with biologically active substances - hormones, which are represented by two groups:

  1. Iodized - thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
  2. Calcitonin Calcitonin.

Violations in the last group of hormones occur rarely. Therefore, speaking of thyroid hormones, iodinated hormones are meant, which are regulators of all biological processes inside the body. They are not derived from it, but are involved in further work. What are the functions of thyroid hormones? So, they do the job of:

  • Metabolism regulation.
  • Stimulate the work of the central nervous system.
  • Increase heat transfer.
  • Stimulation of the processes of excretion of water and potassium.
  • Strengthening of oxidation and consumption of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.

For the thyroid gland to produce hormones smoothly and in the right amount, it needs fresh iodine. It enters the body with clean water and food. If the content of iodine is more or less than the norm, there is a violation of the function of the thyroid gland.

Thyroid dysfunction

So, for a year in the human body, the thyroid gland produces one teaspoon of hormones.

How to independently determine whether iodine is enough in the body?

To answer this question, you need to put on the body iodine grid. This can be done with a brush or a wound cotton ball. If the grid turns pale after two hours and becomes an almost invisible eye, then the body lacks iodine. But if after a day the grid does not disappear, then the content of this element in your body is normal or even in abundance.

What is a reduced thyroid function?

This disease is called hypothyroidism. It is observed in almost 70% of people. But many of them are not even aware of this. The concern is that doctors, guided by inaccurate standard tests, may miss this disease.If hypothyroidism is not treated, it leads to irreversible effects that destroy human health.

Low thyroid function

What is a decrease in thyroid function? This is a weakening of the body. It occurs when the gland is inactive and produces a quantity of hormones below the permissible rate, as a result of which the metabolism is disturbed.

How does it manifest itself?

Symptoms of reduced thyroid function can be:

  • A noticeable increase in weight due to the slow work of the gland, as a result of which little energy is spent.
  • Insufficient provision of the body with energy, which is manifested in increased fatigue, apathy, unwillingness to do something, inability to concentrate attention.
  • The condition of a sleepy person with good sleep at night.
  • Mental, physical, emotional and spiritual exhaustion.
  • Irritability and intolerance towards people.
  • Tension with others.
  • The appearance of acne on the face, dry skin and baldness.
  • Slowdown of metabolic processes.
  • Lowering body temperature.
  • Sensation of cold, chills.
  • Manifestations of heart failure.
  • Changes in blood pressure.
  • Itching and ringing in the ears, frequent dizziness.
  • Decreased performance.
  • The load on the hands causes their numbness and swelling.
  • Pain in the legs, joints, muscles and bones.
  • Allergy.
  • Pain in menstruation in women, difficulty in conceiving.
  • Difficulty in eating in the morning.
  • Feeling of hunger in the evenings.
  • Constipation, nausea.
  • High cholesterol.

Decreased thyroid function

Decreased thyroid function occurs for various reasons. For each person, the disease manifests itself in different ways. A large number of symptoms does not mean that they will appear all at once. Each person is individual, therefore the signs of illness are different. But attentive attitude to your health and any deviations noticed in time will help to correctly diagnose the disease and begin treatment.

Why does this condition occur?

  • One of the reasons for the reduced function of the thyroid gland can be inflammation of the organ itself - thyroiditis. The disease is usually characterized by autoimmune manifestations after an organic infection, when antibodies formed in the human body damage their own cells, which are produced by the thyroid gland.
  • Another reason is treatment with radioactive drugs, in particular iodine.
  • A decrease in thyroid function occurs in the fetus in the womb. A severe form of such a congenital disorder is dementia.
  • The use of thyreostatics.
  • Congenital absence of an organ - aplasia.
  • Cancer, trauma, brain tumor.

If the weakening of the function of this organ occurs in an adult, the gland can become denser and increase in size.

Features enhanced thyroid function

Hyperthyroidism is called hyperthyroidism. This is a group of diseases that are characterized by increased activity of the body when it produces hormones much more than is necessary for human health.

Thyroid hormone functions

Why is this happening? The fact is that when excess iodine is formed, in the absence of disease, they are eliminated from the body naturally. But, if the work of the gastrointestinal tract and liver is impaired, iodine together with thyroid hormones is re-absorbed into the blood. This mixture is toxic and irritating to the body. She makes him produce extra hormones, working for wear.


Most often, the development of hyperthyroidism causes the disease of the gland itself, at which its size increases, the body begins to produce extra hormones. This condition is called Basedow's disease.Another equally important cause of the disease is the formation of numerous nodes that can release extra hormones. This is a disease of Plumer. And the third reason is the presence in the thyroid gland of a single node that secretes extra hormones. This is a toxic adenoma.

Increased thyroid function

The disease may occur for other reasons, there are many. Consider the most common ones:

  • Excessive iodine content in the body. This most often occurs when a person, on his own initiative, takes iodine-containing drugs for a long time as a preventive measure.
  • The consequences of a dangerous injury.
  • Regular nerves overstrain.
  • Transferred heavy tragedy.
  • Prolonged stressful situations.


  • A noticeable reduction in weight, since the activity of the thyroid is increased, which speeds up the metabolic processes in the body, and more energy is spent.
  • Shivering in the fingers and in the whole body.
  • Excessive sweating, feeling hot. Usually, people with this disease, even in extreme cold, dress easily, and sleep with an open window leaf in winter.
  • Cardiac premature contractions, cardiac arrhythmia.
  • A slight increase in temperature, which lasts a long time.
  • Regular over-stimulation, anxiety, tearfulness.
  • Eyes bulge and swelling around them.
  • Perhaps a double vision or difficulty concentrating the subject.

If you suspect this disease should seek medical advice to the endocrinologist. If the thyroid gland is impaired in a child and there is no pediatric specialist in the field of endocrinology in the clinic, it should be observed at the pediatrician. It is necessary to strictly follow all recommendations for the treatment of disease and to protect the patient from any surges: mental and physical.

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