Calibrated timber: application features
Today, housing construction makes a choice in favor of natural, economical, eco-friendly and affordable materials. Wood meets all these requirements. Differing in low thermal conductivity, the tree "breathes" and does not emit toxic substances into the surrounding space. Comfortable wooden house fully justifies the conformity of price and quality. For the construction of housing from a tree in a short time ideal calibrated timber.
Calibrated timber is a material that has been dried, cut and processed in strict accordance with a given size and configuration. A batch of such material is made of a single wood species of a certain moisture content, which should not exceed 15% when selling finished timber.
The quality of the calibrated timber is determined by dense, close to the center, annual rings, viewed on the cut. The tight fit of the smooth surface of the bars usually does not require heat insulation between the links and prevents moisture from penetrating between the parts of the building.Staying dry, the wood does not rot, does not form fungi or mold.
Types of calibrated timber
- Planed timber today is in demand due to its low price, wide choice of sizes in construction markets and ease of processing. The surface of the bar with a square or rectangular section is rounded on four sides, ensuring smoothness and exact size. However, this type of sawn timber requires caulking gaps between the rims and a longer period for shrinking the structure. Cracking is possible during operation.
- Profiled timber forms a solid docking. Thanks to the "ridge", that is, the grooves and protrusions cut on milling machines, a reliable connection is formed that is resistant to high wind loads and improves the thermal insulation of the building. The aesthetic appearance of a flat surface does not need additional decorative finishing. It attracts with ease of installation in a short time and short term shrinkage of the building. But the price is much higher than planed timber and sometimes the appearance of cracks.
- Glued laminated timber is a relatively new sawn timber, consisting of wooden lamels dried and glued in a certain order.The high price of this material is compensated by increased strength and durability, attractive appearance, the possibility of making longer parts. Lack of knots and cracks, ideally smooth surface, minimal cracking, impossibility of formation of rot and mold, preservation of geometry (curvature or screw twisting excluded), insignificant, no more than 1%, shrinkage of the building bring glued timber to the leading positions among sawn timber.
Production of calibrated lumber
For the manufacture of calibrated timber used coniferous wood: pine, cedar, spruce. Less commonly, this lumber is made from oak, ash, beech, birch or aspen. The process of manufacturing a calibrated beam goes through several stages:
- Harvesting, trimming, milling. The trunks with low strength of the tops are cut off and the edges are milled in accordance with the size. The length of the beam does not exceed 6 m, the section varies from 140 to 250 mm.
- Inspection of blanks for scrap, deviation from the axis, inconsistency of the cutting angles. Claims are rejected with a structure damaged by insects and fungus.
- Natural or mechanical drying of wood plays an important role in obtaining high-quality material. Natural drying takes about three months. In drying chambers, wood dries quickly and evenly. Making a calibrated timber from dry raw materials minimizes the risk of deformations of constructed buildings.
The result is a smooth timber with exact dimensions and shape. For a profiled bar, manufactured under a specific order, the factory processes the ends and saws out “ridges”.
The merits of a calibrated timber
Photos of buildings from a wooden bar attract natural beauty and a variety of stylistic solutions. The advantages of this lumber include:
- Exact dimensions and strict geometric shapes. Calibrated wooden beam is ready for the construction of ideally flat walls of the building.
- The profile of this timber excludes stagnation of moisture, therefore, the rotting of a wooden house is prevented.
- Natural wood is environmentally friendly, resistant to temperature changes and has a high thermal insulation. The wall of a calibrated bar with a thickness of 19 cm in thermal conductivity is equivalent to brickwork in 80 cm or 32 cm log.
- Structures of wooden lumber are characterized by a favorable microclimate that is comfortable for people to live in and an attractive view of the walls with a natural fiberboard pattern.
- Due to the low weight of the log house, there is no need to build a solid and solid expensive foundation for the construction of such houses.
- The construction of the house from a calibrated timber "turnkey" takes place in a short time, since the exact dimensions of the parts eliminate the need to customize them.
How to choose high-quality lumber
When buying a calibrated beam, it is necessary to inspect and pay attention to some characteristics:
- Compliance of the cut with the stated dimensions and geometric shapes along the entire length of the bar.
- Smooth surface and lack of cracks: during the operational period they will rot and mold.
- Reasonable price: high-quality timber can not be cheap, at the same time, high price is not an indicator of good quality.
- The change in the color of wood (light blue) is a sign of putrefactive processes.
- The humidity indicator is checked by a special device provided by a bona fide seller and must meet the standards: for external parts of the building it is 15%, for internal parts it is 8%.
Construction of houses from a calibrated bar
Wood is a unique building material that combines exceptional thermal conductivity properties, structural strength, rich color gamut and unique fibrous texture. The clear advantage of building from a calibrated bar is the short period of construction of the building. The ability to manufacture parts of the same size and configuration from different tree species allows you to combine the most durable and moisture-resistant larch timber in the lower part of the building with a crack-free, soft, easy to process and relatively inexpensive pine timber.
The low weight of the wooden frame does not require the arrangement of a costly capital base. To build a house from a calibrated timber, it is enough to lay a strip, columnar or pile-and-foundation foundation.
The modern construction market offers more than 100 types of profiled timber. Due to the lock connection of parts, assembly time is significantly reduced and deformations are excluded. It is recommended to use jute as insulation between the crowns.
Fastening parts with screws and nails increases the likelihood of cracking and cracking of the wooden beam during shrinkage and operation of the building. It is recommended to install the house from a calibrated bar with a dowel - a wooden pin with a round cross-section.
A feature of the projects of houses from a calibrated bar is a low number of floors. Unlike brick or reinforced concrete buildings, wooden houses are built no higher than two levels.
Today, manufacturers of calibrated lumber offer a wide selection of finished projects of wooden houses, easily assembled from parts on the construction site. Manufactured at the factory with high accuracy of adherence to the sizes and configurations, all elements are processed by protective means at the request of the customer.
Stages of construction
The construction of the building of timber passes in several stages:
- Alignment and layout plot.
- Bookmark and waterproofing the foundation.
- Summing up communications: plumbing and sewage.
- Installation of load-bearing walls.
- Installation of floors.
- The construction of interior partitions.
- Installation of roof system, ceiling insulation and roofing installation.
- Flooring flooring.
The device door and window openings in the construction of planed bar is allowed no earlier than after 6 months. In houses of glued and profiled timber openings under the windows and doors are equipped simultaneously with the installation of walls.
The difference between the structure of planed timber is a long term shrinkage of the building. After collecting the box at home only after a year, it is possible to carry out internal communications and finishing works, including the filling of walls and the repair of cracks. Such a construction shrinks by 6-8%. Internal and external decoration of the walls of the profiled or glued timber can be made immediately after construction. Given the susceptibility of wood to the damaging effects of moisture and insects and easy ignition, all the details of the structure must be processed prior to installation with antiseptic and antibacterial drugs and fire retardants. The long-term experience of wooden housing construction shows that it is undesirable to use mixtures "3 in 1". It is recommended to apply each agent only after complete absorption of the previous impregnation. After completion of construction works, walls of calibrated lumber are usually covered with scaling coatings,do not hide the natural beauty of the fibrous structure of the wooden surface.
Photos of houses from a calibrated timber with interior decoration in different stylistic directions can be found in the article. Residential houses, baths, gazebos and other economic structures are built quickly, efficiently and economically from a planed, profiled or glued timber without attracting complicated construction equipment.