As a gang of fraudsters became rich during the Second World War
One of the most significant investigations in the case of the community of fraudsters who forged government securities in difficult times for the country.
During the Great Patriotic War, when the industry worked under the motto “Everything for the front, everything for victory!”, Everything was on cards - from bread and sugar to manufactory and footwear. It is not surprising that in the first weeks after the introduction of coupons they were falsified. Some are handicraft, and some are quite professional.
“As the fascists approached the capital, every kind of trash surfaced,” said Igor Goldtz, during the war years, a police colonel (who now died due to injury). - Dozens recorded cases of forgery of travel documents, passes, food cards, in the city thousands of firearms emerged - both captured and stolen from military warehouses. There was almost no agent work left (the absolute majority of the operatives and the agents went into the fighter battalions), and all the work was based on the help of the population.Muscovites immediately reported everything suspicious to the territorial police departments, many crimes were revealed on the signals of citizens. Most of the pro-card frauds were discovered thanks to the directors of the stores: they were offered to take part in the thefts, and they - in any case, the absolute majority - turned out to be honest people. So the criminal group of the Okrunev carver was opened.
Burned out because of wife
It all started with a signal from the director of the bakery: he accidentally noticed that a woman who was constantly shopping at his store, stood with cards in another, which was far enough away. And reported it to the police.
Having received the information, the investigators identified the identity of the lady - it turned out to be Alexander Okunev, the spouse of the technologist at one of the defense factories Gerasim Okunev. He began to secretly check. A pass to Moscow, issued by the police department, at first glance did not cause doubts, as well as travel documents and a certificate of deferment from conscription. But the investigators, studying the family, drew attention to the extremely full life of the couple.
Class instinct did not let down: an agent specially sent to the Okunevs was able to find out: they can make a pass to Moscow, which during the war years was very difficult to obtain.Further, the operatives began to work - and found an underground printing house.
The printing house was located in the barracks on Novaya Ipatovka Street (the current Moscow district of Koptevo). And Okunev himself, who turned 45 in 1943, lived with his wife and four children in an apartment on Novodmitrovskoye Highway (now at this place of the industrial zone). During the investigation, it became clear that his 34-year-old wife, Alexander, was an active member of the group: she was consuming cards and warrants, and then the goods were sold at speculative prices, Svetlana Kozlova, head of the permanently operating exposition of the history of internal affairs bodies, told Lente.ru. Moscow State Department of the Interior in Moscow.
Nugget from the heartland
Gerasim Okunev was born in 1898 in the village of Mikhailovskaya, Yaroslavl Region. In 1934 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of Agricultural Mechanization, received a degree in engineering technology. But, judging by the materials of the criminal case, he did not work in agriculture, but worked in factories producing engines for airplanes. In any case, the documents stated that “immediately after the start of the war he was sent to plant number 132 in the Chelyabinsk region”: precisely in order to preserve the right to living space in Moscow, evacuation of engineers was registered in the Urals.
Together with him his family left for Chelyabinsk. With products in this city, where several hundred enterprises were evacuated, it was hard. And in April 1942, Gerasim Okunev began to forge bread cards. “For what I began to steal a font from the factory printing house,” it is written in the indictment.
Investigation survey: the contents of the cache, found under the windows of an underground printing houseFrom the exposition of the museum of the Moscow police
Soon Okunev was transferred to the company in Ufa, where he carried with him the font already stolen by that time. But since he did not have enough letters to print, he settled for an evening job in a factory printing house, then he arranged for his son of the Alliance there. Together they stole about 40 kilograms of typographic font. In Ufa Okunev, in addition to grocery cards, he began to print other state documents — first, orders for industrial goods, and then passes.
Obeku products received on counterfeit cards were not only eaten by themselves, but also sold in remote areas of Bashkiria. They were very careful: the investigation failed to prove that already in Ufa Okunev forged passes, but it must be understood that in wartime conditions it was impossible to leave the city regularly without passes.
However, Okunev was an example for those around him: he explained his wealth obtained through criminal activity by the fact that he worked at two enterprises, receiving two working cards at once, and that he also did not allow his son to be lazy. The process engineer forged documents, obviously having a certain sample - that is, he was most likely repeatedly encouraged by management. Having worked two shifts at the enterprises, Okunev forged documents at night, actually working in the third shift.
At the same time, as it turned out after the arrest, this year Okunev’s wife for fake warrants allegedly received “for shock work” by her husband, purchased eight men's sweaters, two full children's costumes, five pairs of felt boots for adults, five pairs of felt boots for children , 15 meters of the manufactory and other manufactured goods, the nomenclature and the number of which could not be established by the investigation, were exchanged for values and products.
Not only the font was stolen by Okunev and his son. As a technologist at an aircraft factory, he stole the precision tools needed to make seals and forms, including drills, micrometers, emery cloths and other scarce consumables during the war years.“After the arrest and seizure of instruments, specialists estimated them on the basis of state prices at 35 thousand rubles. By the standards of the black market, the value of the seized exceeded 150 thousand, ”said Igor Goldtz.
During a search in the printing house, the operatives seized expensive indicator hours (they are used for etching dies), two imported passmeters, micrometers, 357 drills of various diameters, 27 cutters, 97 files and files, a reamer, 70 hacksaw blades, 14 taps, reamers and dies - all this equipment and tools were stolen in military factories. Not every workshop can boast of such a quantity even now.
In April 1943, Okunev bought a fake passport from a pickpocket, faked it and deserted it from the factory, moving to Moscow. There is no mention of this in the materials of the criminal case, but apart from the passport for himself and other family members, such a move required a large set of documents: a transport requirement for tickets, passes to the capital, a call (or a travel order). At the same time, the entire underground printing press and the entire instrument Okunev transported from Ufa to the capital, and this is more than one hundred kilograms of cargo, and they carried it clearly under the guise of official baggage, that is, according to a separate instruction and, most likely, without the right to search.
All documents were made very high quality, otherwise employees of the railway and transport militia fakes would be identified in a timely manner. And 40 kilograms of font would have attracted the special attention of law enforcement officers - the multiplying technique in the USSR was under special control, especially in those years. But the family moved to the capital without any problems, managed to register in an apartment on Novodmitrovskoye shosse and get a room in the barracks of New Ipatovka. There and created a printing house.
Private printing house
The head of the family got to work on false documents at the Moscow Mechanical Plant No. 2, which then and now produced the parts. The underground printer needed access to the metal, and in the first place - to the wire that was in short supply during the war.
The work of the field bakery: during the war years they often provided bread and civilians
From the materials of the criminal case: “In an organized printing house, Okunev himself, his son Alliance, his wife Alexandra Konstantinovna, longtime friend Okunev, engineer of the plant №41 NCAP (People's Commissariat of the Aviation Industry) Peter Belyakov and Peter Gainiev, head of the department №43 NCAP (he made parts of weapons and equip ammunition, this company was necessary for the underground workers chemistry, including acid - approx."Tapes.ru") were engaged in the manufacture of false documents of the state sample.
During a search of the printing house (...), under the windows of the printing house in a snowdrift, as well as at the places of residence of the arrested, the following were found and seized: forms of the executive committee of the district council of people's deputies of the Sovetsky district; official stamp of the Moscow police department; the official seal of the state order of Lenin plant number 26 (Rybinsk machine-building plant); round seal of the department of hiring and dismissal of the plant №46 of the NCAP of the USSR round stamp of house management No. 73 of the Oktyabrsky district of Moscow; round stamp of the October registry office in Moscow; round seal of the OPCS (working supply department) of factory №43 NCAP; angular print of the card bureau of the plant №43; fonts with a total weight of more than 40 kilograms (for example, until 1956 it was customary to cut kilograms - note “Lenti.ru”). In addition, tickets of regular cards for bread in the amount of 51 kgr, for meat - 13 kgr, and cereals - 11 kgr were withdrawn. ”
Examination: Comparison of Original Food Cards and Fakes of the Okunev Gang
From the exposition of the museum of the Moscow police — There is evidence in the case file: a permit to enter Moscow was sold for 3,000 rubles (with a worker’s salary at that time about 150 rubles), certificates of deferment from the call — for 37,000 rubles, cigarettes — for the price 100-150 rubles,despite the fact that the pack then cost about 2.5 rubles, - explained Colonel Svetlana Kozlova. - In addition, three Okunev relatives were identified, to whom he sent forged documents, on the basis of which they deserted from work, moved to Moscow and registered in free space. And no one suspected anything!
The investigation did not go long: in October, all were detained, and already on January 10, the materials were sent to the prosecutor and to the military tribunal. In February, Gerasim Okunev and his accomplices Pyotr Belyakov and Pyotr Gainiyev were sentenced to the highest degree of social protection - to be shot. The 14-year-old Alliance Okunev was sentenced to 10 years in prison, Alexander Okunev, as an active member of the group, was sentenced to 25 years.
“The“ Okunev group ”could unfold only in wartime conditions, when experienced operatives and experts fought on the fronts. With external authenticity of one hundred percent coincidence, he still could not be reached. For example, the watermarks of the fakes differed noticeably from the original ones, but only an expert could make it out, said Igor Goldts. “Okunyov himself showed during interrogation that he began to forge bread cards simply so that there would be more bread in the family.”