According to many experts, “Dora” is the most expensive mistake in the entire history of the development of artillery. Source: “Dora”: why the supergun has become Hitler’s most useless weapon & copy; Russian Seven russian7.ru
According to the Chief of the General Staff of the Ground Forces of Hitler's Germany, Colonel-General Franz Halder, the Dora supergun was a real work of art, but in terms of combat effectiveness this hulk turned out to be a useless weapon.
According to many experts, “Dora” is the most expensive mistake in the entire history of the development of artillery.
The idea of creating a super-power gun belongs to Hitler. After visiting Krupp’s factories in 1936, the Führer ordered the construction of an artillery system capable of penetrating multimeter concrete shelters of the French Maginot Line and Belgian fortifications.
The calculations of Krupp specialists were reduced to ton-meters: a seven-meter shell of a 800-millimeter gun could pierce the seven-meter concrete wall of the shelter. The art system, which had no analogues, was created by a design team under the leadership of Professor Eric Mullet. Mulle's wife was called Dora. The same name and received sverhrudiye. This artillery system should have been fired from a distance of 35-45 kilometers, but for this, the Dora should have a super-long barrel and a mass of at least 400 tons. They conjured over "Dora" for more than four years, spending an astronomical sum of 10,000,000 Reichsmarks for those times.
Fortifications, about which Hitler spoke, ordering to create a supergun, the Germans at that time, without waiting for “Dora”, had already taken. The length of Dora’s trunk exceeded 32 meters, and the weight of the gun itself, without the railway platform on which it was installed, was 400 tons. Her concrete shell weighed 7 tons, high-explosive - 4.8 tons. After fifteen shots, the barrel was already beginning to wear out, although it was originally calculated for a hundred.
The “Dora” in the complex was a rather cumbersome and cumbersome structure - being reinforced on a special 80-wheeled railway transporter, the sophisticated artillery system moved at once along two parallel tracks.The system was served in total by about 3 thousand people. For the shot, “Douro” was prepared for more than a month.
Dora's baptism of fire took place near Sevastopol in 1942, and the effectiveness of the super-gun shots upset the Nazi command - the trouble of delivering and putting the artillery system into combat readiness was more than its use. At the disposal of the army Field Marshal Manstein "Douro" sent General Halder.
The disassembled cannon and ammunition were carried by 5 trains (more than a hundred wagons). Only the artillery system personnel took 43 wagons. At the site of the “Douro”, an almost four-thousand-strong team was “covering up” - soldiers and officers of the transport battalion, camouflage and guard mouth, sappers, gendarmes, engineers, air defense units. Arriving at the location (near Bakhchisarai) at the end of April, the first shot of “Dora” was fired only in the early morning of June 5th.
In Bakhchisarai, houses from such a roar were left without window glass. From the 5th to the 7th of June, the positions occupied by the 96th Infantry Division, the 16th Coastal Battery, the anti-aircraft battery of the Black Sea Fleet, and the arsenal in Sukharny Beam were shelled.From the 48 shots made by Dora on these days, according to the calculations of the German observers, only 5 reached the goal.
In particular, the ammunition depot hidden in the cliffs of the North Bay was directly hit by a giant cannon shell. The trajectory of several “Dora” shells was never succeeded - obviously, they went “into milk”, that is, into the sea. The rest, for the most part, burrowed into the ground at a depth of more than ten meters, and their ruptures did not cause serious damage to our troops.
The second and last "tour"
From the Sevastopol "Douro" was transported to the Leningrad region. True, the barrel had to be sent to Germany for repairs - it was no longer suitable. “Dore” wanted to throw up “hubby” - by the time the Nazis had built another artillery supercrat called the “Fat Gustav” - but the Red Army, breaking the blockade of the northern capital, mixed the plans of the Germans.
The giant guns hastily left the frontal zone, never firing. "Gustav", by the way, never even had to shoot. And in the fall of 1944, the "Douro" was used near Warsaw to suppress the Polish uprising - it fired more than 20 shells.At the end of the war, the retreating Nazi troops transported the Gustav and Dora to Bavaria, where the guns were blown up. The remains of superguns found the Anglo-American allies.